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THE OFFICIAL ASK ALBERT THIEL THREAD

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metrokat
I am having an aptasia outbreak in my clam qt tank, and will be adding Berghia Nudibranch, which I love. THey work great in small tanks, when aptasia eating fish are too big. I have raised them before and will soon be asking people to send me their aptasias for a food source.

How in the world did you get aiptasia in the QT? What else have you introduced in there besides clams and anthias?

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Singlefin

Whoa Mr. T. Looks like this might turn into a full time job.

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albertthiel
I'll still look up the iodine issue and post what I find in the morning as I am about to sign off for the evening

 

Albert

 

Zeph ... here is the best I could find on GAC and iodine .... in fact the ability of GAC to remove iodine is used to determine how active it still is in removing pollutants from the water .... I checked Sprung and Delbeek and yes I am somewhat surprised to read there that they are not really sure ... odd ... here is what I found that should put the topic to rest :

 

quote

 

The Iodine number

 

Many carbons preferentially absorb small molecules. Iodine number is the most fundamental parameter used to characterize activated carbon performance. It is a measure of activity level (higher number indicates higher degree of activation), often reported in mg/g (typical range 500–1200 mg/g). It is a measure of the micropore content of the activated carbon (0 to 20 Å, or up to 2 nm) by adsorption of iodine from solution. It is equivalent to surface area of carbon between 900 m²/g and 1100 m²/g. It is the standard measure for liquid phase applications.

 

Iodine number is defined as the milligrams of iodine adsorbed by one gram of carbon when the iodine concentration in the residual filtrate is 0.02 normal. Basically, iodine number is a measure of the iodine adsorbed in the pores and, as such, is an indication of the pore volume available in the activated carbon of interest.

 

Typically, water treatment carbons have iodine numbers ranging from 600 to 1100. Frequently, this parameter is used to determine the degree of exhaustion of a carbon in use.

 

However, this practice should be viewed with caution as chemical interactions with the adsorbate may affect the iodine uptake giving false results.

 

Thus, the use of iodine number as a measure of the degree of exhaustion of a carbon bed can only be recommended if it has been shown to be free of chemical interactions with adsorbates and if an experimental correlation between iodine number and the degree of exhaustion has been determined for the particular application.

 

unquote

 

More info on several Wikipedia pages on GAC ... I found quite a few but the above seems to indicate that iodine is indeed removed from the filtrate ....

 

Any comments ?

 

Albert

Edited by albertthiel
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albertthiel
Whoa Mr. T. Looks like this might turn into a full time job.

 

Yes based on what happened yesterday afternoon till about 8:30 when I logged off there were indeed quite a few questions and I have not answered all of them yet ...

 

Full time job ? :) Guess I will have to find a way to respond to all the question without it indeed taking up most of the day ...

 

Nott that I mind answering questions if I can, and have an answer, as I already pointed out that

 

1. I do not know answers to everything which in our hobby is the norm as so many things happen that still remain unexplained or not quite fully understood

 

2. Some questions are hard to answer due to lack of information about thank conditions, or what was done to the tank, the load, the type of livestock, additives used or not used, etc... etc...

 

3. Some questions fall in the domain of "well that is something that happens in reef tanks and in saltwater tanks but why it happens is not that easy to determine, or is not understood yet

 

I certainly do not want to discourage anyone from posting a question or two or three ... :) and I will do my best to answer them in a timely fashion .... indeed I do have other matters to take care of as well as I am sure everyone understands.

 

So far though I am able to deal w/ the questions as long as I do not get too involved in answering questions or postings in other threads as well .... -- ツ ツ ツ

 

Albert

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albertthiel
How in the world did you get aiptasia in the QT? What else have you introduced in there besides clams and anthias?

 

Kat ... IME Aiptasia will get into a tank in so many ways that it is IMO really hard to tell. One can put a rock in the tank and see nothing for weeks and weeks or even longer and then suddenly "pop" there they are.

 

I have even heard of those pesky Aiptasia being introduced by taking water from one tank and using it to add water to another tank and due to their form of reproduction low and behold weeks or so later one has Aiptasia in the tank ... Below is an interesting description I found on one of the more advanced sites:

 

Quote ....

In the case of the well-studied Aiptasia pallida and Aiptasia pulchella, individuals are dioecious, meaning that individuals are of separate sexes.

 

During spawning, these anemones release their gametes into the water where fertilization occurs. The resulting zygote becomes a free swimming planula larva which eventually settles onto a suitable substrate where it undergoes metamorphosis to become a small polyp. Newly produced larvae are aposymbiotic meaning they do not contain symbionts. The larvae or newly settled polyps can acquire symbiotic algae from the environment.

Unquote

 

So instead of settling as indicated above .. IME just transferring water as I described can get the larvae from one tank to another ...

 

I am sure though that there are multiple other explanations and maybe Zeph can tell us what he thinks the reasons is he got them in that tank

 

Albert

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ZephNYC
Zeph ... here is the best I could find on GAC and iodine .... in fact the ability of GAC to remove iodine is used to determine how active it still is in removing pollutants from the water .... I checked Sprung and Delbeek and yes I am somewhat surprised to read there that they are not really sure ... odd ... here is what I found that should put the topic to rest :

 

quote

 

The Iodine number

 

Many carbons preferentially absorb small molecules. Iodine number is the most fundamental parameter used to characterize activated carbon performance. It is a measure of activity level (higher number indicates higher degree of activation), often reported in mg/g (typical range 500–1200 mg/g). It is a measure of the micropore content of the activated carbon (0 to 20 Å, or up to 2 nm) by adsorption of iodine from solution. It is equivalent to surface area of carbon between 900 m²/g and 1100 m²/g. It is the standard measure for liquid phase applications.

 

Iodine number is defined as the milligrams of iodine adsorbed by one gram of carbon when the iodine concentration in the residual filtrate is 0.02 normal. Basically, iodine number is a measure of the iodine adsorbed in the pores and, as such, is an indication of the pore volume available in the activated carbon of interest.

 

Typically, water treatment carbons have iodine numbers ranging from 600 to 1100. Frequently, this parameter is used to determine the degree of exhaustion of a carbon in use.

 

However, this practice should be viewed with caution as chemical interactions with the adsorbate may affect the iodine uptake giving false results.

 

Thus, the use of iodine number as a measure of the degree of exhaustion of a carbon bed can only be recommended if it has been shown to be free of chemical interactions with adsorbates and if an experimental correlation between iodine number and the degree of exhaustion has been determined for the particular application.

 

unquote

 

More info on several Wikipedia pages on GAC ... I found quite a few but the above seems to indicate that iodine is indeed removed from the filtrate ....

 

Any comments ?

 

Albert

 

 

It is amazing to me, that at this day and age, we are not sure of simple questions like "Does activated carbon remove Iodine ??? or iron??

You would think these simple questions had been defined long ago, but is still not clear. We have read for years that they do...and then an expert (Sprung) says " maybe not". In all honesty I have never worried about iodine because i have always been very heavy with water changes and when I used to test it was always high.

I agree that it removes iodine, because I have read the same studies as you. I will test my system tonight as I am curious. As you know I run heavy heavy carbon and I have my reasons. On a 500 gal system I run two 24" inch reactors filled w/active carbon, and a third 24" reactor filled with chemi pure. I also run polyfilters last in line, and they still seam to find something to remove. Carbon is changed every 2 - 3 weeks, chemi pure bi-monthly

Edited by ZephNYC

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ZephNYC
How in the world did you get aiptasia in the QT? What else have you introduced in there besides clams and anthias?

 

aptasia.jpg

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albertthiel
It is amazing to me, that at this day and age, we are not sure of simple questions like "Does activated carbon remove Iodine ??? or iron??

You would think these simple questions had been defined long ago, but is still not clear. We have read for years that they do...and then an expert (Sprung) says " maybe not". In all honesty I have never worried about iodine because i have always been very heavy with water changes and when I used to test it was always high.

I agree that it removes iodine, because I have read the same studies as you. I will test my system tonight as I am curious. As you know I run heavy heavy carbon and I have my reasons. On a 500 gal system I run two 24" inch reactors filled w/active carbon, and a third 24" reactor filled with chemi pure. I also run polyfilters last in line, and they still seam to find something to remove. Carbon is changed every 2 - 3 weeks, chemi pure bi-monthly

 

Fully agree that after all these years and all the articles that have been written no one actually puts forward a definitive answer to what GAC (and what source it is of) actually does to saltwater

 

Here is a link to a somewhat controversial article by Dr Tim Hovanec (PhD) on the use of carbon (let me know your thoughts on it) ...

 

http://www.drtimsaquatics.com/resources/li...ctivated-carbon

 

Albert

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albertthiel
aptasia.jpg

 

Is that the reason .... ?

 

Albert

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ccapasso

Looking for some advice on replacing the entire sand bed of my 55g:

http://www.nano-reef.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=290364

 

This is currently posted in my 55g thread, but I am re-posting here as requested.

 

Reasons for wanting to replace it:

 

  • I believe the previous owner of this tank did not ever clean the sand bed. I've tried to clean it as much as possible.
  • I feel the sand bed has become a nitrate factory and needs to be replaced.
  • I do 50% water changes and the nitrates keep coming back to 20+
  • It is nasty looking

 

Concerns:

 

  • Not sure I can replace a little bit at a time. If it is a nitrate factory, sucking up a little at a time will cause massive spikes.
  • Do not want to cause harm to livestock.
  • Do not want to cause harm to corals.
  • There is a pistol shrimp and watchman Goby living under the sand bed.
  • Do not want to destroy Pod population with 90% water change.

 

Thoughts/Ideas/Plan of Attack:

 

  • Drain water as if doing a 50% water change - Discard this water
  • Remove all live rock and corals and place in buckets/tubs (no power heads likely)
  • Catch livestock and place in buckets/tubs
  • Drain more water while removing substrate at the same time
  • Remove remaining substrate
  • Clean Glass and remove buildup
  • Place new substrate
  • Fill halfway with new water
  • Place live rock and corals back in
  • Fill up with water
  • Place livestock back in
  • Cross fingers

 

Unknowns/Questions/Etc:

  • How much water should I replace?
  • I want to use black sand. Do they make non-live black sand?
  • Does the plan make sense?
  • What changes/suggestions/etc would you recommend?

 

Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Edited by ccapasso

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albertthiel
I am having an aptasia outbreak in my clam qt tank, and will be adding Berghia Nudibranch, which I love. THey work great in small tanks, when aptasia eating fish are too big. I have raised them before and will soon be asking people to send me their aptasias for a food source.

 

Zeph look at this thread and the Clams ...

 

http://www.nano-reef.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=305257

 

Albert

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NanoTopia

Albert, you seem to have a lot of questions coming your way, sorry to add another, and thanks greatly for being a part of NR. No rush with this one:

 

Have you read, heard, or experienced marine nitrifying/denitrifying bacteria survival or reproduction rates affected by alkalinity levels alone. Do they have an optimum zone in which they can become more active?

 

My thoughts were that possibly at high alkalinity levels (>12 dKH) marine bacteria may survive but not flourish. This is just an amateur observation of mine based on tying to seed bacteria to bio-pellets. At the time I was running 11-12 dKH (I know bad) and could not get the bio-pellets seeded and producing results. When I lowered my alkalinity 3-4 months later to 9 then later 7.5 dKH the bio-pellets kicked in big time and fast. This based on lowered PO4 levels (0.00 ppm) as evidenced by a Hanna checker and watching my algae vanish. I needed to step up feeding in order to off set the deficit of nutrients in the tank. Now this is only observation and there could have been other factors at play here. It just seemed so obvious at the time.

 

Everyone says in a ULNS you need to keep your alkalinity at NSW levels (7.5 dKH). No one seems to know why exactly other than the possibility it reduces stress on the coral making it less likely to bleach in a nutrient poor environment. I wonder if there may be other factors at play. Any thoughts are welcome Albert, thanks.

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ZephNYC
Zeph look at this thread and the Clams ...

 

http://www.nano-reef.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=305257

 

Albert

 

 

Maxima looks good for now, I think he is going to have a problem with that squamosa though, looks like it has a headache to me.

Edited by ZephNYC

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albertthiel
Maxima looks good for now, I think he is going to have a problem with that squamosa though, looks like it has a headache to me.

 

Yes that one looked liked it was starting to show problems of issues with how the mantle was stretched out and it did not look that good to me either.

 

Albert

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Wizzy

My turn :happy:

 

I currently have a Nanocube 12 DX setup (sponge filters in back, heater, PC Lighting soon to be upgraded to LED, bare-bottom, rock, stock return pump 166 gph, carbon in back).

 

It's been a few months now and I have noticed that certain corals will suddenly stop opening, become covered in red slime/cyano, and slowly melt (mainly zoanthids).

 

I asssume this is because I am feeding too much, don't have enough light (old bulbs), need a skimmer, and/or a reactor with phosphate removing media.

 

I have increased water changes and stopped feeding as much.

 

What doesn't make sense to me though, is that I have LPS, zoanthids, etc in the tank that are very happy while others slowly die.

 

Is my tank simply inadequate (equipment wise)?

 

What's your opinion?

 

Thanks- Wizzy

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ZephNYC
Yes that one looked liked it was starting to show problems of issues with how the mantle was stretched out and it did not look that good to me either.

 

Albert

 

Perkinsus strikes again .This is the perfect time to dip her in freshwater, before she reaches the point of no return. I would hate to see that Maxima get infected too, which WILL happen if action is not taken and fast. Squamosa's are far more resistant to PM than maximas, If the squammy is showing symptoms the pathogen is STRONG and the maxima, far less resistant, will soon be doomed too. I'll drop the owner a note.

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Spirofucci

Unfortunately, Kat now has the second best thread on NR. :)

 

This will now be my starting point at the beginning of the day along with coffee, a cig, and before the Wall Street Journal.

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chrssprngs

This thread is exactly what I had in mind. Just accidentally posted it in members tanks forum. It would be nice if you had someone edit your OP. All in all a nice job Zeph. I'm sure Albert is going to enjoy this.

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ZephNYC
This thread is exactly what I had in mind. Just accidentally posted it in members tanks forum. It would be nice if you had someone edit your OP. All in all a nice job Zeph. I'm sure Albert is going to enjoy this.

 

THank you!! The only problem I have is keeping my BIG MOUTH SHUT and let Albert answer the questions.

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ZephNYC
My turn :happy:

 

I currently have a Nanocube 12 DX setup (sponge filters in back, heater, PC Lighting soon to be upgraded to LED, bare-bottom, rock, stock return pump 166 gph, carbon in back).

 

It's been a few months now and I have noticed that certain corals will suddenly stop opening, become covered in red slime/cyano, and slowly melt (mainly zoanthids).

 

I asssume this is because I am feeding too much, don't have enough light (old bulbs), need a skimmer, and/or a reactor with phosphate removing media.

 

I have increased water changes and stopped feeding as much.

 

What doesn't make sense to me though, is that I have LPS, zoanthids, etc in the tank that are very happy while others slowly die.

 

Is my tank simply inadequate (equipment wise)?

 

What's your opinion?

 

Thanks- Wizzy

 

Is it Ok if I answer ??? Dont want to step on any toes. Friend, GET A SKIMMER!! and some carbon/phosphate remover. PLEASE!! ..and stop over feeding.

Edited by ZephNYC

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albertthiel
Albert, you seem to have a lot of questions coming your way, sorry to add another, and thanks greatly for being a part of NR. No rush with this one:

 

Have you read, heard, or experienced marine nitrifying/denitrifying bacteria survival or reproduction rates affected by alkalinity levels alone. Do they have an optimum zone in which they can become more active?

 

My thoughts were that possibly at high alkalinity levels (>12 dKH) marine bacteria may survive but not flourish. This is just an amateur observation of mine based on tying to seed bacteria to bio-pellets. At the time I was running 11-12 dKH (I know bad) and could not get the bio-pellets seeded and producing results. When I lowered my alkalinity 3-4 months later to 9 then later 7.5 dKH the bio-pellets kicked in big time and fast. This based on lowered PO4 levels (0.00 ppm) as evidenced by a Hanna checker and watching my algae vanish. I needed to step up feeding in order to off set the deficit of nutrients in the tank. Now this is only observation and there could have been other factors at play here. It just seemed so obvious at the time.

 

Everyone says in a ULNS you need to keep your alkalinity at NSW levels (7.5 dKH). No one seems to know why exactly other than the possibility it reduces stress on the coral making it less likely to bleach in a nutrient poor environment. I wonder if there may be other factors at play. Any thoughts are welcome Albert, thanks.

 

I am sure that you understand that this is not an easy question to answer but I remember reading an article not too long ago that increased acidification of our Oceans reduces nitrification ... which is somewhat the opposite of what you postulate.

 

I have made a note to do some research on this but here is an article that you may wish to read ... it's pretty sic oriented but does give you some answers.

 

http://www.pnas.org/content/108/1/208.full.pdf

 

I went through a number of the books I own e..g Huckstedt's Aquarienchemie and a few more specialized ones by Carr, Whitton, Lee and others, but have not been able to validate your statement above.

 

I will check some more though and see what I can come up with.

 

Albert

 

 

Unfortunately, Kat now has the second best thread on NR. :)

 

This will now be my starting point at the beginning of the day along with coffee, a cig, and before the Wall Street Journal.

 

:)

 

 

Is it Ok if I answer ??? Dont want to step on any toes. Friend, GET A SKIMMER!! and some carbon/phosphate remover. PLEASE!! ..and stop over feeding.

 

Zoanthids can live in water of lesser water quality than many other corals and that may be what you are seeing.

 

And as Zeph says (and yes no issue with your responding Zeph) you need to reduce feeding a lot, get a good strong skimmer, use some form of chemical filtration and rethink how you are running the tank. No negative remark intended here but since you are asking the question that is the advice that I can recommend.

 

The issues you mention all seem to have to do with tank management so that is what you will IMO need to change.

 

If you need more info ... just ask

 

Albert

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Spirofucci
THank you!! The only problem I have is keeping my BIG MOUTH SHUT and let Albert answer the questions.

 

I cannot speak for Albert but I am sure he welcomes good debate and argument as this is how we came as far as we have so far as a hobby.

 

Correct me if I am wrong, but name another hobby that is as far advanced as their scientific community.

 

Again, great thread!

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albertthiel
My turn :happy:

 

I currently have a Nanocube 12 DX setup (sponge filters in back, heater, PC Lighting soon to be upgraded to LED, bare-bottom, rock, stock return pump 166 gph, carbon in back).

 

It's been a few months now and I have noticed that certain corals will suddenly stop opening, become covered in red slime/cyano, and slowly melt (mainly zoanthids).

 

I asssume this is because I am feeding too much, don't have enough light (old bulbs), need a skimmer, and/or a reactor with phosphate removing media.

 

I have increased water changes and stopped feeding as much.

 

What doesn't make sense to me though, is that I have LPS, zoanthids, etc in the tank that are very happy while others slowly die.

 

Is my tank simply inadequate (equipment wise)?

 

What's your opinion?

 

Thanks- Wizzy

 

Wizzy when I answered I used one of Zeph's messages so the answer is there ... if you have more questions let me know ..

 

Albert

 

 

I cannot speak for Albert but I am sure he welcomes good debate and argument as this is how we came as far as we have so far as a hobby.

 

Correct me if I am wrong, but name another hobby that is as far advanced as their scientific community.

 

Again, great thread!

 

Fully in agreement .... yes I do welcome a good debate ... that is what allows us to make progress ... and since none of us has all the answers, the more people get into a particular thread with their responses, the more we learn - good or bad - true or not - but that's how we'll make progress for sure

 

Albert

 

 

THank you!! The only problem I have is keeping my BIG MOUTH SHUT and let Albert answer the questions.

 

Not to worry ... jump in whenever you want to ... and that applies to everyone

 

Albert

 

 

Perkinsus strikes again .This is the perfect time to dip her in freshwater, before she reaches the point of no return. I would hate to see that Maxima get infected too, which WILL happen if action is not taken and fast. Squamosa's are far more resistant to PM than maximas, If the squammy is showing symptoms the pathogen is STRONG and the maxima, far less resistant, will soon be doomed too. I'll drop the owner a note.

 

Yes Zeph please do ... I think he will appreciate the advice and recs you make

 

Albert

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albertthiel

Some time ago in another thread someone was looking for an ID on a yellow little whatever in their tank.

 

I looked around and believe this may be it :

 

cirratulid.png

 

A Cirratulid worm

 

Albert

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