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  1. seabass

    Eels - Moray

    Eels - Moray Moray Eels are the most common eel in the aquarium trade. The following species are good candidates for captive life. They require a tightly sealed top that securely snaps on and has no gaps. Sand is a good substrate; however, your eel might occasionally bury themself in deep sand, so limiting the sand bed to an inch deep will allow you to see them better. Moray Eels have no scales making them very sensitive to medication. Research treatments for eels prior to administering meds (avoiding medications when possible). Provide plenty of live rock with caves and crevices, making sure that the rock is stable to prevent the powerful eel from toppling the structures. Products like E-Marco 400 aquascaping cement can be used to fix the rock together (zip-ties and epoxy are also sometimes used). Provide at least three long caves (PVC pipes can be used) for your eel to explore and to take shelter within. The more comfortable it is, the more likely you will see your eel. Tank Mates A single Moray Eel is usually best. Moray Eels consider any fish or crustacean that is small enough to be swallowed, to be food. However, you can usually keep larger fish with the more docile species (although there are occasional reports of Moray Eels biting larger fish during feeding time). Large wrasses can be used to reduce problem pests; and it's not unusual to see displays of Lionfish along with Moray Eels. Filtration Due to size of Moray Eels and the amount of food fed, excellent filtration and water changes are very important. In addition, a protein skimmer will aid with keeping up water quality. Make sure that your eel does not have access to any of your filters where it can be injured. Diet Be careful when feeding, as a moray's bite can be severe (and they don't easily let go); plus wounds can be subject to bacterial infections. Moray Eels have powerful jaws and sharp teeth that can even crush clam shells. Despite reports of people hand feeding their eels, you should always use a feeding tool (tongs or feeding stick) instead. Eventually you might be able to simply drop food nearby. Moray Eels can go without food for a couple of weeks and may initially refuse to eat. However, generally, they should be fed at least once a week. Young Moray Eels are usually fed more frequently than adults. People typically feed juveniles every other day, while adults are often fed a substantial meal two or three times a week. Instinctually they are nocturnal predators, so try feeding after the aquarium lights turn off; although they might learn to come out during the day to feed. They tend to use smell over sight to locate food. Moray Eels will eat most meaty seafood that it can swallow, including tank mates when hungry. Provide meaty chunks of fish (like silversides) and crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, krill, and other seafood), occasionally treating your eel to chopped squid, and live fish and shrimp. Without live food, consider soaking frozen food in a vitamin supplement like Selcon. Golden Dwarf Moray Eel (Gymnothorax melatremus) Max Size: 1' Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific, Africa, Hawaii Jeweled Moray Eel (Muraena lentiginosa) Max Size: 2' Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: No Origin: Central America, Eastern Pacific Golden Banana Moray Eel (Gymnothorax miliaris) Max Size: 2' 4" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Western Atlantic Species Notes: The Golden Banana Moray Eel is the same species as the Fire Coral Eel (except in a rare yellow form) Japanese Dragon Eel (Enchelycore pardalis) Max Size: 3' Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Japan Snowflake Eel (Echidna nebulosa) Max Size: 3' 4" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia, Melanesia Species Notes: Well suited for life in captivity. It's mild mannered and easily adjusts to a captive diet. Snowflake Eels typically don't get much larger than 2' in captivity. Zebra Moray Eel (Gymnomuraena zebra) Max Size: 5' Minimum Tank Size: 75 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Species Notes: The Zebra Moray Eel is a docile species that is an ideal moray for the community tank. It poses little threat to other fish and is often out and about during the day rather than at night. Crabmeat is part of its diet in the wild, and will be appreciated while in captivity. Tessalata Eel (Gymnothorax favagineus) Max Size: 6' Minimum Tank Size: 180 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Sri Lanka Yellow-Edged Eel (Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) Max Size: 8' Minimum Tank Size: 300 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: Needs two or three substantial meals per week. Note: The Spotted Garden Eel (Heteroconger hassi), belonging to the Congridae family, is sometimes found in the aquarium trade. However, it requires expert care and isn't a Moray Eel. Photos by
  2. seabass

    Rabbitfish

    Rabbitfish While too large for a true nano reef, Rabbitfish are colorful, hardy, and interesting to observe. In addition, its algae eating capabilities (including hair algae, bubble algae, and red turf algae) can be quite useful. They tend to be peaceful, except when housed with other Rabbitfish. Its venomous spines can inflict a painful sting, so use caution when handling this fish. Even other fish will fear their spines, which makes it possible to house Rabbitfish with more aggressive species. Given a large enough tank, you can usually keep Rabbitfish in bonded pairs. When well fed, Rabbitfish are generally reef-safe. Provide plenty of live rock for grazing on algae. However, when underfed, they are known for nipping at and consuming LPS and soft corals. Considered a herbivore, feed a herbivorous diet (including sheets of algae, frozen herbivorous preparations, and fresh vegetables) along with meaty chunks of seafood (including chopped shrimp, squid, clams, mussels, and krill). One Spot Foxface (Siganus unimaculatus) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Western Pacific Foxface Lo (Siganus vulpinus) Max Size: 10" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia Magnificent Foxface (Siganus magnificus) Max Size: 9.5" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia, Sumatra Bicolor Foxface (Siganus uspi) Max Size: 10" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji Two Barred Rabbitfish (Siganus virgatus) Max Size: 11" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Central Pacific, Indonesia Blue Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus corallinus) Max Size: 1' 1" Minimum Tank Size: 180 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific Decorated Rabbitfish (Siganus puellus) Max Size: 1' 3" Minimum Tank Size: 180 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific Gold Spotted Rabbitfish (Siganus punctatus) Max Size: 1' 4" Minimum Tank Size: 180 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Australia, Fiji, Indonesia Yellow Blotch Rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) Max Size: 1' 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 180 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Central Pacific, Indonesia Photos by
  3. seabass

    Seahorses

    Seahorses Seahorses are best kept by an experienced aquarist; and captive bred specimens (which greatly increase your odds of success) are highly recommended over wild collected individuals. When selecting a captive bred seahorse at your local fish store, make sure that it's eating and shows no signs of abdominal concavity. Captive bred seahorses should be eating eating frozen mysis shrimp, chopped krill, or plankton. However, dwarf seahorses, even if captive bred, require live food (generally enriched brine shrimp nauplii and pods). Seahorses require an established, stable aquarium with gentle currents (around 5 times total tank turnover); spray bars are commonly used to create flow. In addition to gentle flow, they need hitching posts (like Caulerpa and/or Halimeda algae, gorgonians, branching live rock, or even plastic aquarium decor) to cling to while resting. Gorgonians, Acropora, and other branching coral might be safe for seahorses; however, they can be irritated by seahorses that continually hitch onto them. Seahorse tanks should be no less than twice as tall (3 times being even better) as the uncurled length of a fully grown member of the species. Maintain alkalinity and calcium levels to keep their bony plates healthy. Also, by keeping the tank temperature under 74°F, you might help to prevent tropical Vibrio infections. Seahorses have different temperature requirements (tropical, subtropical, or temperate) depending on the species. Typically it's easier/cheaper to heat a tank, than to cool one. Set the temperature towards the lower end of the range and let it drift up. Per Seahorse.org: Tropical Seahorses (71°F - 78°F) Min Tank Size For A Pair Additional Pairs Require H. zosterae 5 gallons 1.5 more gallons H. kuda 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. barbouri 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. erectus 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. reidi 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. comes 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. procerus 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. fuscus 10 gallons 5 more gallons Subtropical Seahorses (68°F – 75°F) Min Tank Size For A Pair Additional Pairs Require H. whitei 15 gallons 8 more gallons H. ingens 45 gallons 13 more gallons H. tuberculatus 15 gallons 5 more gallons Temperate Seahorses (64°F – 71°F) Min Tank Size For A Pair Additional Pairs Require H. capensis 10 gallons 5 more gallons H. abdominalis 60 gallons 13 more gallons H. breviceps 10 gallons 5 more gallons Seahorses are often kept in mated pairs or small groups. When keeping a group of seahorses, it's best to quarantine new additions for six weeks prior to introducing them into the community. Some sites recommend a preventative formalin bath or freshwater dip prior to quarantine. During this time in quarantine, observe your new seahorse(s) for lesions, odd behavior, or lack of appetite. Seahorses are typically best kept in a species specific tank. Appropriate tank mates include fan worms and most reef-safe snails; while larger species can be kept with smaller shrimp and smaller reef-safe hermit crabs. Pipefish, and even Clown Gobies, are sometimes kept with larger seahorses. The diet of captive bred seahorses includes thawed, frozen mysis shrimp and/or zooplankton. Frozen food can be enriched with supplements like Selcon. Feed twice daily and supplement their diet with live foods at least once a week. An attached pod refugium can be used to provide a constant supply of live pods. Wild collected specimens require a well established aquarium with a healthy microfauna (pods and larvae) population. In addition, they must be fed live foods, including pods (like Algagen PODS™ Tisbe), newly hatched baby brine shrimp and gut loaded baby brine shrimp. Some specimens might eventually be able to be trained to take small varieties of frozen mysis shrimp, frozen prawn eggs, and zooplankton. Dwarf Seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) a.k.a. Seapony Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 5 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: No Origin: Caribbean Species Notes: Does best in a smaller aquarium (which helps concentrate food), in groups of 6 or more. Keep a continuous supply of newly hatched baby brine shrimp, copepods, and larvae. A sponge filter works pretty wells in this environment. Keep in a species specific tank without stinging corals, anemones, crabs, and shrimp. Barbouri Seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific Half-Spined Seahorse (Hippocampus semispinosus) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Bali Kuda Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Reidi Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic, Brazil Thorny Seahorse (Hippocampus histrix) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Hawaii Lined Seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) Max Size: 7.5" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Moderate to Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic Tigertail Seahorse (Hippocampus comes) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo Pacific Ingen's Seahorse (Hippocampus ingens) Max Size: 10" Minimum Tank Size: 45 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Pacific Ocean Species Notes: A subtropical species, keep between 68°F and 75°F. Pot Belly Seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) Max Size: 14" Minimum Tank Size: 60 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific, Australia Species Notes: A temperate species, keep between 64°F and 71°F. Photos by
  4. seabass

    Pipefish

    Pipefish Pipefish are an enticing and challenging fish best kept by an experienced aquarist. They require a well established tank with lots of live rock (with caves and overhangs) and a large microfauna population. Being poor swimmers, swimming room isn't usually the highest priority; but provide plenty of hiding spots and gentle flow (cover inlets, pumps, and overflows as they will drift with the currents). They will hang out in seagrass and macroalgae (often upside down) mimicking their surroundings. Provide a dense growth of algae species like Caulerpa and/or Halimeda, or gorgonians for shelter. Soft corals and non-stinging LPS corals can also be kept. Avoid keeping Pipefish with anemones. Seahorses, dragonets, and other small non-cleaner species of gobies are suitable tank mates. Avoid aggressive fish, and fish that feed aggressively, as they will out compete Pipefish, even to the point of starvation. Even crabs and larger shrimp can harm Pipefish. Wild caught specimens might initially experience a difficult transition into captivity (refusing to eat prepared foods), but tend to eventually adjust well to life in captivity. Pipefish and seahorses (which share many similarities) are highly susceptible to white boil disease (an often fatal fungal infection caused by Glugea heraldi) and Brooklynella. Unlike most saltwater fish, because of their shape and armored appearance, it can be difficult to determine when Pipefish are malnourished or underfed. Their mouths are small, narrow, and toothless which restricts what they can eat. They prefer to eat live copepods and planktonic larvae (like from cleanup crew members). Culturing your own copepods is a good option, as is having an attached pod refugium. When introducing your Pipefish, have live foods available, even if you saw them eating frozen food at your local fish store, as the stress of moving might set them back. Feed new fish live copepods (like Algagen PODS™ Tisbe) and amphipods, live mysis shrimp and gut-loaded live brine shrimp. Newly hatched baby brine shrimp are also a healthy live food which you can hatch from eggs. It can be challenging to train Pipefish to eat prepared foods. Feed small varieties of frozen mysis shrimp (as opposed to larger shrimp like Piscine Energetics Frozen Mysis Shrimp), frozen prawn eggs, or other frozen zooplankton. Pipefish need to be fed small amounts at least three times a day. Bluestripe Pipefish (Doryrhamphus excisus) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Indonesia, Red Sea Species Notes: One of the more hardy species. Janss' Pipefish (Doryrhamphus janssi) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: This social species tends to do better in mated pairs or groups of its own kind in an aquarium that is 50 gallons or larger. Striped Shrimpfish (Aeoliscus strigatus) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Yellow Multibanded Pipefish (Doryrhamphus pessuliferus) Max Size: 6.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Banded Pipefish (doryrhamphus dactyliophorus) Max Size: 7.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Dragonface Pipefish (Corythoichthys haematopterus) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Maldives Photos by
  5. seabass

    Boxfish (Cowfish)

    Boxfish (Cowfish) Boxfish, also known as Cowfish, are unique fish that are best kept by an experienced aquarist with non-aggressive fish in a large fish only with live rock (FOWLR) aquarium, as they are often not considered completely reef-safe. Despite their slow swimming nature they can be capable jumpers. These fish can release a toxin (called ostracitoxin) from its mucous glands when they are threatened, stressed, or die, which can kill its tank mates. Sudden movements, sounds, or even bright lights can cause a Boxfish to release its toxin. Even advanced aquarists have lost tanks full of expensive fish due to Boxfish toxin. However, note that Trunkfish such as the Horn Nosed Cowfish, Long Horn Cowfish and Camel Cowfish are a lot less likely to cause harm to other tank inhabitants. Boxfish can be aggressive towards fish of its own species (keep two females if keeping a pair in a sufficiently large tank). Avoid keeping with aggressive fish and even cleaner species. Provide a sandy substrate with plenty of live rock with caves and crevices for shelter and filtration, but with plenty of open swimming area. Additional mechanical and chemical filtration (activated carbon) is recommended for these hearty eaters. These fish are often sold while still quite small (and cute). However, they require lots of feeding and space, and many species can grow quite large. Don't purchase for a smaller tank with the intention of upgrading down the road. Boxfish are omnivores. Feed a varied diet two to three times a day, but no more than it can eat in a minute or two. When first introduced, it might refuse food for a week or two; try feeding live gut-loaded brine shrimp or bloodworms. It should then be acclimated to chopped squid, clams, krill, mussels, and herbivore preparations. Being a slow swimmer, it might lose out to faster fish, so make sure they are getting enough food. Feed thawed frozen marine preparation containing meaty foods and herbivorous preparations (including dried seaweed, or even frozen peas). While they may accept dry preparations, don't offer floating food, which might cause them to swallow air causing buoyancy problems. Scribbled Boxfish (Ostracion solorensis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific, Australia Species Notes: May eat snails, ornamental shrimp, and smaller fish. Shaw's Boxfish (Aracana aurita) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: No Origin: Indo-Pacific, Australia Species Notes: Known for wiping out entire tanks when stressed. Thornback Cowfish (Lactoria fornasini) Max Size: 9" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific, South Africa Whitespotted Boxfish (Ostracion meleagris) Max Size: 10" Minimum Tank Size: 120 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Central Pacific, Hawaii Species Notes: A male and female or two females can be kept in the same aquarium together; but two males will fight. Camel Cowfish (Tetrosomus gibbosus) Max Size: 1' Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea Species Notes: Less likely to cause any harm to other tank mates. Horn Nosed Cowfish (Ostracion rhinorhynchos) Max Size: 1' 1" Minimum Tank Size: 75 gallons Care level: Moderate to Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific, Australia Species Notes: The Horn Nosed Cowfish is considered much hardier than others of its kind. Often considered reef safe, large specimens may eat ornamental shrimp and crabs. Cubicus Boxfish (Ostracion cubicus) a.k.a. Yellow Boxfish Max Size: 1' 6" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: ndo-Pacific, Red Sea, Africa Species Notes: May nip at tubeworms. Longhorn Cowfish (Lactoria cornuta) Max Size: 1' 8" Minimum Tank Size: 250 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: May nip at tubeworms. Less likely to cause any harm to other tank mates. Scrawled Cowfish (Acanthostracion quadricornis) Max Size: 1' 10" Minimum Tank Size: 150 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Atlantic Photos by
  6. seabass

    Cardinalfish

    Cardinalfish Cardinalfish are a great addition to a peaceful marine aquarium. Provide plenty of live rock with caves, overhangs, crevices, as well as an open area for swimming. In the wild, they hide in seagrass or may use long spined urchins for protection and camouflage. In captivity, these hardy fish will enjoy moderate water flow and taking refuge from other tankmates in macroalgae such as Caulerpa prolifera. Cardinalfish, a mouthbrooder, will often breed in captivity. Once spawning has occurred, the male will carry the eggs in his mouth to develop in safety. After the fry have been released, and with appropriate care, it's possible to raise the young into adulthood. Captive raised Cardinalfish tend to be hardier than their wild harvested counterparts. In the wild, Cardinalfish eat small fish and crustaceans. While Cardinalfish can be particular feeders, it's usually not that difficult to meet their needs in captivity. Many Cardinalfish have nocturnal tendencies, so feeding shortly after light out might induce finicky fish to feed. It's best to feed small quantities of food several times per day. Include frozen mysis shrimp and/or other frozen marine fish food. Some species (and individual fish) will accept quality dry foods; and larger Cardinalfish will accept live marine feeder shrimp and fish. Red Spot Cardinalfish (Apogon parvulus) Max Size: 1.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific, Indo-Pacific Red Belted Cardinalfish (Apogon townsendi) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic Ocean Yellow Cardinalfish (Ostorhinchus luteus) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Guam Threadfin Cardinalfish (Apogon leptacanthus) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Fiji Longspine Cardinalfish (Zoramia leptacantha) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Kaudern's Cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Orangestriped Cardinalfish (Apogon cyanosoma) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea, Australia Pajama Cardinalfish (Sphaeramia nematoptera) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Sri Lanka Orbic Cardinalfish (Sphaeramia orbicularis) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Orbic Cardinalfish prefers to be kept in groups. Flame Cardinalfish (Apogon maculatus) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean, Costa Rica Species Notes: Due to its aggressive nature, it shouldn't be kept in groups; however, it does well in a mated pair. Larger specimens will accept live marine feeder fish and shrimp. Twospot Cardinalfish (Apogon pseudomaculatus) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic, Brazil Ochrestriped Cardinalfish (Ostorhinchus compressus) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 55 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Sumatra Species Notes: Larger specimens will accept live marine feeder fish and shrimp. Five Lined Cardinalfish (Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Species Notes: A small group can be kept in a 6' aquarium, where they will establish a strict hierarchy without aggressiveness. Feed chopped meaty seafoods, pellets, and (depending on size) live marine feeder shrimp and fish. Photos by
  7. seabass

    Anthias

    Anthias Anthias are known for being finicky eaters (even to the point of starvation), poor shippers, and sometimes prone to infections when stressed. But they are also some the most beautiful reef fish in the ocean; and fortunately for us, some species of Anthias are both hardy and peaceful (Lyretail, Bartletts, or Dispar Anthias are often considered the most forgiving for those new to keeping Anthias). Provide a generous amount water flow and live rock that recreates its natural reef environment (with caves, slopes, and overhangs). A well fitting top is also required. Anthias make a stunning addition to a peaceful fish community. However, a large species specific tank is ideal, where a single male is kept with several (maybe four to six) females and juveniles, or kept alone (singly) in smaller tanks (close to the recommended minimum tank size). Anthias are hermaphroditic. So if a dominant male perishes, the largest female of the group will often take its place (which can take a few months). Males usually have a different coloration than the females. Anthias are considered planktivores (which eat pods). In the wild, they eat zooplankton throughout the day. In the home aquarium, they need to be fed no less than three times a day (4 or 5 being better). An attached pod refugium is recommended to supplement their diet throughout the day (with live food). You might initially try feeding frozen mysis shrimp, but gut loaded live brine shrimp might be required to entice feeding. Eventually, you might be able to wean them onto other frozen foods, or even quality dry foods (which could be used with an automatic feeder). Sunset Anthias (Pseudanthias parvirostris) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives Resplendent Anthias (Pseudanthias pulcherrimus) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Maldives Waitei Anthias (Luzonichthys waitei) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 55 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Species Notes: Anthias within this genus do not differ between the genders. Especially shy, the Waitei Anthias may require extra care. It's best kept in small groups of five or more individuals. Bartlett's Anthias (Pseudanthias bartlettorum) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Marshall Islands Princess Anthias (Pseudanthias smithvanizi) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Species Notes: The Princess Anthias is a deep water species and may be difficult to acclimate. They are also poor shippers. Keep lighting low initially; but over time, it should adapt to stronger lighting. Ignitus Anthias (Pseudanthias ignitus) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives Carberryi Anthias (Nemanthias carberryi) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Maldives Dispar Anthias (Pseudanthias dispar) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Sri Lanka Evansi Anthias (Pseudanthias evansi) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate to Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives, Sri Lanka Red-Bar Anthias (Pseudanthias cooperi) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Red Saddled Anthias (Pseudanthias flavoguttatus) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: The Red Saddled Anthias may be difficult to acclimate. They are collected in waters of up to 98 feet deep and prefer low to moderate lighting conditions, but will eventually adapt to stronger lighting. Red Belted Anthias (Pseudanthias rubrizonatus) a.k.a. Tri-Color Anthias Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean Species Notes: The Red Belted Anthias displays aggression towards conspecifics and other anthias. But it can be kept singly or in small shoals comprised of several females with one male. Indian Ocean Lyretail Anthias (Pseudanthias squamipinnis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Kenya, Maldives Fathead Sunburst Anthias (Serranocirrhitus latus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, New Caledonia, Philippines Species Notes: The Fathead Sunburst Anthias prefers to hang out at the bottom of a deep tank, with low to moderate intensity lighting. Huchtii Anthias (Pseudanthias huchtii) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Lyretail Anthias (Pseudanthias squamipinnis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Melanesia Bimaculatus Anthias (Pseudanthias bimaculatus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives Blood Spot Anthias (Pseudanthias luzonensis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Stocky Anthias (Pseudanthias hypselosoma) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 125 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia Squareback Anthias (Pseudanthias pleurotaenia) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia Photos by
  8. seabass

    Blennies

    Blennies Blennies are rich in personality. They are typically bottom dwellers, with some being peaceful and some more aggressive, some reclusive and others more outgoing, some herbivores and others omnivores or even carnivores. They can be territorial, and have been known to pick on other blennies, smaller gobies, and dartfish. Provide plenty of live rock. Combtooth Blennies have around 100 teeth embedded in their lips, which are used to scrape algae off rocks and aquarium glass. However, hervivorous Blennies might nip on fleshy corals and clam mantles when underfed. Finally, the Fang Blennies, of the Meiacanthus genus, have a painful and venomous bite. Some Blennies are hervibores which should be fed frozen and dried foods for herbivores (containing spirulina and other marine algae). They will also forage for microalgae growing within the aquarium, and should be kept in an established aquarium with microalgae growth. However, Midas Blennies, Fang Blennies, and Yellowtail Black Blennies are omnivores and should be fed frozen mysis shrimp, finely chopped seafood, as well as frozen herbivore preparations. While Eyebrow Barnacle Blennies and Panamic Barnacle Blennies are carnivores, and should be fed finely chopped meaty foods. Two Spot Bimaculatus Blenny (Ecsenius bimaculatus) Max Size: 1.5" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Cebu Species Notes: Two Spot Bimaculatus Blennies shouldn't be kept with aggressive species which can intimidate these fish into hiding. Feed herbivorous foods. It will also feed on microalgae growing in the aquarium. Might nip at sessile invertebrates. Panamic Barnacle Blenny (Acanthemblemaria hancocki) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Panama Species Notes: The Panamic Barnacle Blenny is a carnivore and should be fed mysis shrimp and finely chopped meaty foods. Pictus Blenny (Ecsenius pictus) a.k.a. White Lined Comb Tooth Blenny Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: Feed herbivorous food preparations. Tail Spot Blenny (Ecsenius stigmatura) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Cebu Species Notes: Tail Spot Blennies shouldn't be kept with aggressive species which can intimidate these fish into hiding. Feed herbivorous foods. It will also feed on microalgae growing in the aquarium. Might nip at SPS corals. Smith's Blenny (Meiacanthus smithii) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Sri Lanka Species Notes: Smith's Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Eyebrow Barnacle Blenny (Ekemblemaria myersi) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Eyebrow Barnacle Blenny is a carnivore; feed mysis shrimp and finely chopped seafood. Blackline Blenny (Meiacanthus nigrolineatus) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Red Sea, Indian Ocean Species Notes: The Blackline Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Red Sea Mimic Blenny (Ecsenius gravieri) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Red Sea, Indian Ocean Species Notes: The Red Sea Mimic Blenny mimics the Blackline Blenny, but is not venomous. Provide chopped meaty food along with herbivorous preparations. Bundoon Blenny (Meiacanthus bundoon) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Tonga Species Notes: The Bundoon Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Linear Blenny (Ecsenius lineatus) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: South Asia Species Notes: Linear Blennies shouldn't be kept with aggressive species which can intimidate these fish into hiding. Feed herbivorous foods. It will also feed on microalgae growing in the aquarium. Might nip at SPS corals. Harptail Blenny (Meiacanthus mossambicus) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa Species Notes: The Harptail Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Bicolor Blenny (Ecsenius bicolor) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Sri Lanka Species Notes: The Bicolor Blenny is a herbivore. It might nip at clam mantles or SPS when underfed. Segmented Sailfin Blenny (Salarias segmentatus) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Eastern Asia Species Notes: The Segmented Sailfin Blenny is a herbivore. It's considered reef safe, but might nip at SPS corals. Black Combtooth Blenny (Ecsenius namiyei) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia, Philippines Species Notes: Feed herbivorous food preparations. One Spot Blenny (Crossosalarias macrospilus) a.k.a. Triplespot Blenny Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: South Asia Species Notes: The One Spot Blenny is a herbivore. It requires a well established aquarium that is growing microalgae. Feed herbivorous food preparations. Yellowtail Black Blenny (Enchelyurus flavipes) a.k.a. Flametail Blenny Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: The Yellowtail Black Blenny looks similar to the Bicolor Blenny but has a more rounded head. It's an omnivore which should be fed finely chopped seafood, as well as prepared frozen herbivore preparations. Kamohara Blenny (Meiacanthus kamoharai) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Japan Species Notes: The Harptail Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Black Sailfin Blenny (Atrosalarias fuscus) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Java, Tonga Species Notes: The Black Sailfin Blenny is a herbivore, and needs an established aquarium with microalgae growth to survive. It might also eat hair algae. It might nip at clam mantles or SPS when underfed. Striped Blenny (Meiacanthus grammistes) a.k.a. Striped Fang Blenny Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: The Striped Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Sailfin Blenny (Salarias fasciatus) a.k.a. Lawnmower Blenny Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Species Notes: As a herbivore, it may eat filamentous hair algae. Requires an established aquarium with algae growth. It can eventually become territorial and nip at sessile invertebrates and clams. Canary Blenny (Meiacanthus oualanensis) a.k.a. Oualan Forktail Blenny Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Species Notes: The Canary Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Green Canary Blenny (Meiacanthus tongaensis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Species Notes: The Green Canary Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Orange Spotted Blenny (Blenniella chrysospilos) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji, Maldives Species Notes: The Orange Spotted Blenny may nip at stony coral polyps or clam mantles. Feed herbivorous food preparations. Forktail Blenny (Meiacanthus atrodorsalis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Philippines Species Notes: The Forktail Blenny is an omnivore possessing venomous, defensive fangs. Ember Blenny (Cirripectes stigmaticus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Species Notes: The Ember Blenny in an omnivore and requires a meaty diet including mysis shrimp and finely chopped seafood, along with frozen herbivorous preparations containing spirulina and marine algae. Midas Blenny (Ecsenius midas) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Maldives Species Notes: The Midas Blenny (especially in nano tanks) might intimidate planktivores and nip at firefish and gobies. It's an omnivore that requires finely chopped meaty food as well as frozen herbivorous preparations. Starry Blenny (Salarias ramosus) Max Size: 6.5" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Australia Species Notes: Feed herbivorous food preparations. Photos by
  9. seabass

    Pseudochromis (Dottybacks)

    Pseudochromis, a.k.a. Dottybacks Pseudochromis are also known as Dottybacks. They are hardy, active, and do well in captivity; however, they can become aggressive towards other Pseudochromis or fish with similar body shapes. House Dottyback singly unless the aquarium is very large. Provide a well fitted top to prevent jumping, and plenty of live rock with multiple caves and crevices for shelter. Territorial in nature, Dottybacks will limit your choices in a nano tank. They are best kept with larger tank mates (such as tangs, large damselfish, hawkfish, angelfish, squirrels, parrots, and other large fish which are not easily bullied). Dottybacks can hold their own against fish that are significantly more than twice their size. Their reputation to bully other fish means that they shouldn't be added to a peaceful aquarium community, or kept with timid or hesitant feeders. Pseudochromis will sometimes eat smaller ornamental crustaceans, like sexy shrimp or other anemone shrimps. There are various species of captive bred Pseudochromis. And while captive raised specimens tend to be more peaceful, they are still likely to harass other Dottybacks, Basslets, Wrasses, and small fish. There are even a couple of captive bred hybrid species available. In the wild, Dottybacks feed on plankton, small crustaceans, and worms. In captivity, they will accept most commercially prepared foods (including frozen, pellet, and flake). Feed a variety of food for carnivores (like chopped shrimp, krill, squid, clam, and mussels). If kept in a reef aquarium (where they can forage), they should be fed at least once per day. Occasional feeding of a herbivore preparation is also recommended. Orangetail Dottyback (Pseudochromis coccinicauda) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Bluelined Dottyback (Pseudochromis cyanotaenia) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific Orchid Dottyback (Pseudochromis fridmani) a.k.a. Fridman's Dottyback, Fridman's Pseudochromis Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Red Sea Sunrise Dottyback (Pseudochromis flavivertex) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden Dilectis Dottyback (Pseudochromis dilectus) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Sri Lanka Purple Stripe Dottyback (Pseudochromis diadema) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Bicolor Dottyback (Pictichromis paccagnellae) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Bicolor Dottyback might be the hardiest of all the Dottybacks; however, it is also one of the more aggressive species. Keep it in an aggressive community of larger fish. Purple Dottyback (Pseudochromis porphyreus) a.k.a. Strawberry Dottyback Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia Elongate Dottyback (Pseudochromis elongatus) a.k.a. Elegant Dottyback Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Elongate Dottyback has a relative peaceful demeanor compared to other dottybacks; while less aggressive, it's not a skittish fish. Springeri Dottyback (Pseudochromis springeri) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indian Ocean: Red Sea Striped Dottyback (Pseudochromis sankeyi) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Southern Red Sea, Gulf of Aden Neon Dottyback (Pseudochromis aldabraensis) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Persian Gulf Yellow Dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus) a.k.a. Dusky Dottyback Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: In the wild, the Yellow Dottyback feeds on small fishes, large zooplankters, and small benthic crustaceans. Thy Yellow Dottyback will eat small ornamental shrimp. It's best kept with tangs, large damselfish, hawkfish, angelfish, squirrels, parrots and other large fish that are not easily bullied. Polynemus Pseudochromis (Pseudochromis polynemus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Splendid Dottyback (Manonichthys splendens) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Australia Lyretail Dottyback (Pseudochromis steenei) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific Tono's Dottyback (Pseudochromis tonozukai) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Sumatra, Indian Ocean HYBRIDS: Electric Indigo Dottyback (Pseudochromis fridmani x Pseudochromis sankeyi) hybrid Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Red Sea Species Notes: The Indigo Dottyback is a captive-Bred hybrid of an Orchid Dottyback and a Striped Dottyback. Black Neon Dottyback (Pseudochromis aldabraensis x Psuedochromis springeri) hybrid Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Kenya, Maldives Species Notes: The Black Neon Dottyback is a captive-Bred hybrid of a Neon Dottyback and a Springeri Dottyback. It possesses an unique ability to alter coloration on its flanks from black to a rust color. Photos by
  10. seabass

    Damsels

    Damsels While very hardy, most Damselfish have a reputation for becoming territorial and aggressive as they get older (especially the larger varieties). In the past, they were used to cycle new marine aquariums. However, after they are introduced, they can be difficult to remove. Plus today, there are more humane ways to cycle tanks (and rocks). Since a territorial Damsel can become a problem when space is limited, you might consider keeping certain species of Damsels without any other fish tank mates in your nano reef. But in larger aquariums, some Damselfish can even be kept in groups of the same species. Damsels are closely related to Clownfish, and some will even hang out in host anemones like Clownfish do. Also, like Clownfish, Damselfish change gender as they mature. Most are considered to be reef-safe, Damsels are omnivores. They accept most prepared dry and frozen marine foods. Offer a varied diet of meaty items (including flakes, pellets, and frozen preparations). Being omnivores, herbivore preparations should also be occasionally offered. Blue Sapphire Damselfish (Chrysiptera springeri) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: The Blue Sapphire Damsel can quickly turn completely black when stressed, allowing them to evade predators. Tracey's Damselfish (Chrysiptera traceyi) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Neon Damselfish (Pomacentrus alleni) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Sri Lanka Talbot's Damselfish (Chrysiptera talboti) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Coral Sea, Indonesia, Philippines Rolland's Damselfish (Chrysiptera rollandi) a.k.a. Black Cap Damselfish Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Species Notes: A small group of juvenile Black Cap Damsels can be kept in a suitably sized aquarium with other semi-aggressive fish, as they can become territorial as they mature. Lemon Damselfish (Pomacentrus moluccensis) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific Sapphire Damselfish (Pomacentrus pavo) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Sapphire Damselfish is considered less aggressive than some Damsels. Ternate Damselfish (Amblyglyphidodon ternatensis) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Azure Damselfish (Chrysiptera hemicyanea) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Yellowtail Damselfish (Chrysiptera parasema) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Yellowtail Damsel can be kept in small groups of odd numbered fish in suitably sized systems. It's considered one of the least aggressive members of this genus. Similar Damselfish (Pomacentrus similis) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: Might be less aggressive than some other Damsels. Fiji Blue Devil Damselfish (Chrysiptera taupou) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Tonga Pink Smith Damselfish (Pomacentrus smithii) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Solomon Species Notes: A small group can reside in an appropriately sized aquarium. Orangetail Blue Damselfish (Chrysiptera cyanea) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia Pink Demoiselle (Chrysiptera rex) a.k.a. King Damselfish Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Blue and Gold Damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Ambon Damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Tonga, Marshall Islands Two Stripe Damselfish (Dascyllus reticulatus) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Tonga Starcki Damsel (Chrysiptera starcki) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Java, Melanesia, Tonga Species Notes: Generally considered less aggressive than most other Damsels. Blue Damselfish (Chrysiptera cyanea) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Solomon Islands Four Stripe Damselfish (Dascyllus melanurus) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Three Stripe Damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Regal Demoiselle (Neopomacentrus cyanomos) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives Species Notes: It's possilbe to keep amall shoals of Regal Demoiselle appropriately sized aquariums. Golden Domino Damselfish (Dascyllus auripinnis) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Fiji Black and Gold Damselfish (Neoglyphidodon nigroris) a.k.a. Black and Gold Chromis, Behn's Damsel Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific, Indian Ocean Three Spot Domino Damselfish (Dascyllus trimaculatus) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Philippines Blue Velvet Damselfish (Paraglyphidodon oxyodon) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Bluefin Damselfish (Neoglyphidodon melas) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: May be a threat to shrimp, and may nip at soft corals. Jewel Damselfish (Microspathodon chrysurus) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic Photos by
  11. seabass

    Basslets

    Basslets Basslets are colorful fish which do well in captivity. A top is recommended as they can occasionally jump. Smaller basslets are reef safe (with the exception of small shrimp), while larger basslets can pose a threat to smaller fish, shrimp, and other crustaceans. Offer plenty of live rock for shelter. Assessors have an unusual practice of "hanging out" upside down or vertically in: caves, overhangs, and other shaded areas. Feed Basslets a variety of meaty foods: including mysis shrimp, and quality frozen preparations. Deepwater Candy Basslet (Liopropoma carmabi) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic Ocean Species Notes: Often collected at more than 80 feet deep, the Deepwater Candy Basslet requires temperatures between 68°F and 74°F (typically requiring a chiller). Swissguard Basslet (Liopropoma rubre) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean, Tropical Western Atlantic Royal Gramma Basslet (Gramma loreto) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean, Tropical Western Pacific Species Notes: Can be kept in groups in tanks over 100 gallons, but should be kept singly in nano tanks. Macneill's Assessor Basslet (Assessor macneilli) a.k.a. Blue Assessor Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Coral Sea Species Notes: Feed at least twice a day. Randall’s Assessor Basslet (Assessor randalli) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Philippines Species Notes: Feed at least twice a day. Chalk Bass (Serranus tortugarum) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean, Tropical Western Atlantic Lantern Bass (Serranus baldwini) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Caribbean, Tropical Western Atlantic Species Notes: Should not be kept with small fish or shrimp. Black Cap Basslet (Gramma melacara) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean Species Notes: Does best with lots of rockscape, as it may compete for territory with other rock dwelling species (like certain blennies and gobies). Tobacco Basslet (Serranus tabacarius) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Caribbean, Tropical Western Atlantic Species Notes: Can pose a threat to smaller fishes (like small damsels, gobies, and blennies) as well as to small crustaceans. Multiples can be kept in tanks greater than 120 gallons. Harlequin Bass (Serranus tigrinus) Max Size: 11.5" Minimum Tank Size: 75 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Caribbean, Tropical Western Atlantic Species Notes: May be aggressive to smaller tank mates, smaller sea basses, or bottom dwelling fish which occupy the same territory. Photos by
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    Scorpionfish

    Scorpionfish Scorpionfish are bottom dwelling fish with venomous defensive spines. They are hardy and adapt relatively well to captive life. Provide a mixed sandy substrate with some rubble and plenty of live rock for shelter and perching on. They tend to do best with more docile tank mates. Coral Crouchers are sometimes referred to as Gobies, but are actually members of the Scorpionfish family. They have gumdrop-like bodies, and are often found amongst corals branches and rock rubble. Its body looks like it's covered in hair, giving it a fuzzy appearance. While reclusive at first, it should eventually come out more often. Coral Crouchers will lay eggs on the underside of SPS coral branches (often causing tissue loss). However, if healthy, the coral should recover. Coral Crouchers should be fed a varied diet consisting of frozen mysis shrimp, chopped shrimp, and frozen preparations for carnivores. It should be target fed daily with feeding tongs or some other feeding tool. Without a substrate, Coral Crouchers should be fed several times a day. Pygmy Coral Croucher Goby (Caracanthus unipinna) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Central Pacific Madagascar Spotted Croucher Goby (Caracanthus madagascariensis) a.k.a. Gumdrop Coral Croucher Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Madagascar Leaf Fish (Taenianotus triacanthus) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Hawaii, Indonesia, Maldives Species Notes: The Leaf Fish diet consists of live foods such as feeder fish or small shrimp. It does best with passive tank mates. Orangebanded Stingfish (Choridactylus multibarbus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: No Origin: Indonesia, Maldives Species Notes: The Orangebanded Stingfish is able to bury itself up to its eyes in order to ambush its prey. Entice new specimens with live ghost shrimp, then wean onto mysis shrimp and other prepared meaty foods. Photos by
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    Dartfish

    Dartfish (Firefish, Tilefish) Dartfish (including Firefish and Tilefish) are called Dartfish because of their darting swimming motions. Firefish are easily bullied, but make an excellent addition to a peaceful fish community, while Tilefish (of two subfamilies: Latilinae, sometimes called the Branchiosteginae, and Malacanthinae) are known for having a short lifespan in captivity. They require a sandy substrate, plenty of live rock for shelter, and a well fitted top (as they are known jumpers). Dartfish feed on prey suspended in the water column, but will also pick food off of the substrate. Its varied diet should include finely chopped or shaved seafood (including krill, shrimp, squid, clams, and mussels), as well as frozen food preparations for carnivores and mysis shrimp. It's a good idea to occasionally supplement with some type of herbivore preparation. Firefish, Helfrichi (Nemateleotris helfrichi) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Marshall Islands Family: Gobiidae Exquisite Firefish (Nemateleotris exquisita) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives Family: Gobiidae Firefish (Nemateleotris magnifica) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Coral Sea, Maldives, Philippines Family: Gobiidae Purple Firefish (Nemateleotris decora) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Family: Gobiidae Blue Gudgeon Dartfish (Ptereleotris heteroptera) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Family: Microdesmidae Species Notes: A three inch mixed grain sand bed with loose coral rubble is recommended for burrowing. Also, a small group may do better than a single individual, but must be introduced all at the same time. Should be fed three times a day. Green Silk Gudgeon Dartfish (Ptereleotris microlepis) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives Family: Microdesmidae Species Notes: A three inch mixed grain sand bed with loose coral rubble is recommended for burrowing. Also, a small group may do better than a single individual, but must be introduced all at the same time. Should be fed three times a day. Scissortail Dartfish (Ptereleotris evides) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Fiji, Indonesia, Maldives, Vanuatu Family: Microdesmidae Species Notes: A three inch mixed grain sand bed with loose coral rubble is recommended for burrowing. Also, a small group may do better than a single individual, but must be introduced all at the same time. Should be fed three times a day. Zebra Barred Dartfish/Tilefish (Ptereleotris zebra) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Maldives Family: Microdesmidae Species Notes: A three inch mixed grain sand bed with loose coral rubble is recommended for burrowing. Also, a small group may do better than a single individual, but must be introduced all at the same time. Should be fed three times a day. Photos by
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    Lionfish

    Lionfish Lionfish are often referred to as Scorpionfish, or even sometimes Firefish or Turkeyfish. They were native to the Indo-Pacific, but are now are found in most oceans (and considered a pest due to the lack of native predators). Lionfish look exotic, are relatively personable, are hardy, and adapt well to captivity. Provide plenty of live rock for shelter, and adequate filtration for their relatively large bio-load. The spines of Lionfish are venomous, and will typically cause a reaction similar to a bee sting; however, it can also kill other fish. If you are stung, soak the affected area in hot water (between 100ºF and 114ºF). It's probably best to keep Lionfish in a species only tank; however, if your tank is large enough, it might be possible to keep other similar sized fish. When first introduced, you might try feeding your Lionfish live saltwater feeder shrimp to entice it to eat. Their diet should consist of meaty foods such as: live marine fish and shrimp, with the occasional pieces of crustacean flesh. Some species will accept frozen food (especially when purchased young). Mombasa Lionfish (Pterois mombasae) Max Size: 6.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia, Maldives Zebra Lionfish (Dendrochirus zebra) a.k.a. Dwarf Lionfish Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Eastern Asia, South Asia, Vanuatu Fuzzy Dwarf Lionfish (Dendrochirus brachypterus) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa, Indonesia Antennata Lionfish (Pterois antennata) Max Size: 8" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa, Indo-Pacific, Tahiti Radiata Lionfish (Pterois radiata) Max Size: 10" Minimum Tank Size: 75 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Tahiti Miles Lionfish (Pterois miles) Max Size: 1' Minimum Tank Size: 100 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa, Sumatra Russell's Lionfish (Pterois russelli) Max Size: 1' 2" Minimum Tank Size: 120 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa, Asia Volitan Lionfish (Pterois volitans) Max Size: 1' 3" Minimum Tank Size: 120 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa, Indo-Pacific, Sri Lanka Photos by
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    Jawfish

    Jawfish Jawfish are certainly entertaining to watch. And they like to keep an eye on what's going on too, often building a burrow in the substrate near the center of your aquarium. They will even spit substrate at fish that happen to get too close. Jawfish are generally peaceful; but unless a mated pair, they will fight with their own kind. It will need a tank which is at least 30 gallons, with live rock, and at least a 3 to 4 inch deep mixture of fine to moderate grain sand to sift through. Also, supply some small rubble for its burrow. A well fitting top is required as they are known jumpers. Jawfish should be fed at least three times a day. Their diet should consists of a variety of chopped meaty marine food including: krill, shrimp, squid, clams, and mysis shrimp. While being a carnivore, they will benefit from occasionally eating herbivore preparations. Chinstrap Jawfish (Opistognathus sp 6) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Blue Dot Jawfish (Opistognathus rosenblatti) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-Aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Mexico Species Notes: Specimens taken from the Sea of Cortez are used to waters between 58°F and 70°F, and require a chiller in warmer weather. Yellowhead Jawfish (Opistognathus aurifrons) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean Black Cap Jawfish (Opistognathus randalli) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Dusky Jawfish (Opistognathus whitehurstii) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean Photos by
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    Hawkfish

    Hawkfish Hawkfish are considered reef safe with caution because they might eat smaller shrimp, fish and crustaceans. Due to their aggressive nature, they often harass smaller or peaceful fish (especially small bottom dwelling blennies and gobies, or fish introduced afterwards). It spends much of its time perching on and swimming within branching corals. A well fitting top is recommended. The Hawkfish should be fed a varied diet including frozen marine fish food and live feeder shrimp. Two Spot Hawkfish (Amblycirrhites bimacula) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Moderate Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Tahiti Falco Hawkfish (Cirrhitichthys falco) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, New Caledonia Pixy Hawkfish (Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus) a.k.a. Spotted Hawkfish Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Central America, Indonesia Flame Hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) a.k.a. Brilliant Hawkfish Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Tahiti Longnose Hawkfish (Oxycirrhites typus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Central America, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Sumatra Blood Red Hawkfish (Cirrhitops fasciatus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Christmas Island Red Hawkfish (Cyprinocirrhites polyactis) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-ggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia, Maldives, New Caledonia Photos by
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    Chromis

    Chromis Chromis are related to both Damsels and Clownfish, which might result in some aggression with their cousins. However, overall, Chromis tend to be on the more peaceful side. In the wild, Chromis are often found in large shoals, often amongst branching corals. And in a larger tank, a group of five or more Chromis can be kept together. However, many reef keepers report aggressive behavior amongst groups kept in nano tanks (often ultimately resulting in a single Chromis). Reef keepers sometimes use Chromis as a dither fish, to signal safety to less outgoing fish. Chromis are omnivores. Once acclimated, they will accept most commercially prepared saltwater fish foods. However, it's best to feed them a varied diet. Black Bar Chromis (Chromis retrofasciata) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Black & White Chromis (Chromis margaritifer) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Vanderbilt's Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Melanesia Agile Chromis (Chromis agilis) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Green Reef Chromis (Chromis viridis) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Barrier Reef Chromis (Chromis nitida) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Coral Sea Blue Reef Chromis (Chromis cyaneus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Caribbean Webers Chromis (Chromis weberi) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 75 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji Sunshine Chromis (Chromis insolata) Max Size: 6.5" Minimum Tank Size: 75 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Tropical Western Pacific Photos by
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    Clownfish

    Clownfish Clownfish are sometimes referred to as Anemonefish, and are considered by many to be the classic saltwater aquarium fish. As their name implies, Anemonefish are well known for their symbiotic relationship with host anemones. The following Clownfish symbiosis chart was provided in Tank Facts by PalaciosAn: Clownfish are a very hardy fish; however, host anemones tend to have special needs (including: tank maturity and size, lighting and flow, as well as target feeding), and are not typically recommended for beginner reef keepers. Without a host anemone, clownfish might treat a coral or even a piece of tank equipment as a host. Clownfish are commonly kept in pairs, and will often breed in the home aquarium. However, raising the larvae requires a culture of live rotifers. The Kindle eBook, Clownfishes, by Joyce D. Wilkerson, is an excellent reference for those interested in raising Clownfish young. Captive raised clownfish are commonly available in the aquarium trade. And today, due to selective breeding, despite being the same species, some captive bred Clownfish bear little resemblance in pattern and color to their wild counterparts. When pairing clownfish, it's best to choose a significantly smaller juvenile for a larger clownfish of the same species. The larger dominant fish will become an adult female, while the smaller submissive fish will become an adult male. In absence of another female, the most dominate male will become a female. However, especially in a nano tank, introducing two females of the same species will result in fighting (even to the death). Clownfish are omnivores. Once acclimated, they will accept most commercially prepared saltwater fish foods. However, it's best to feed them a varied diet. Ocellaris Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) a.k.a. False Percula Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean Species Notes: Ocellaris Clownfish do quite well without a host anemone. Percula Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggresive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Papua New Guinea Akindynos Anemonefish (Amphiprion akindynos) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Coral Sea White Bonnet Anemonefish (Amphiprion leucokranos) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Australia, Solomon Islands Pink Skunk Clownfish (Amphiprion perideraion) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Coral Sea, Fiji, Indo-Pacific Cinnamon Clownfish (Amphiprion melanopus) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Tonga, Fiji Skunk Anemonefish (Amphiprion akallopisos) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indian Ocean, Madagascar Maldives Anemonefish (Amphiprion nigripes) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Sri Lanka, Maldives Species Notes: The Maldives Clownfish is a poor swimmer. It should be kept with a Heteractis magnifica host anemone. Orange Skunk Clownfish (Amphiprion sandaracinos) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Christmas Island, Australia, South Pacific Black Saddleback Anemonefish (Amphiprion polymnus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific, Indo-Pacific, Solomon Islands Tomato Clownfish (Amphiprion frenatus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Fiji Three Band Anemonefish (Amphiprion tricinctus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Marshall Islands Fire Clownfish (Amphiprion ephippium) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indian Ocean, Sumatra Two Banded Red Sea Anemonefish (Amphiprion bicinctus) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Red Sea Wide Band Anemonefish (Amphiprion latezonatus) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Intermediate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Lord Howe Island, Queensland Clarkii Clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Micronesia, Australia Maroon Clownfish (Premnas biaculeatus) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Coral Sea, Indo-Pacific Species Notes: There is a White Striped Maroon and a Gold Striped Maroon, both are Premnas biaculeatus. Allard's Anemonefish (Amphiprion allardi) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa Sebae Clownfish (Amphiprion sebae) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Intermediate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Sri Lanka, Indian Ocean Blue Stripe Anemonefish (Amphiprion chrysopterus) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Intermediate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Tonga, Marshall Islands, Tahiti Photos by
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    Frogfish (Anglers)

    Frogfish, a.k.a. Anglers Frogfish are commonly referred to as Anglers. While not for beginners, they are relatively hardy and can adapt to life in captivity (even within a large nano tank). Anglers are relatively good reef dwellers and like to perch on coral ledges. In the wild, they feed on unsuspecting crustaceans or smaller fish by swallowing their prey whole. These fish possess a modified spine called an illicium, which suspends a lure-like appendage in front of its mouth, called the esca. Note that aggressive triggers or puffers have been known to eat a Frogfish's illicium. Frogfish should be fed live marine feeder shrimp and fish (small Frogfish can be offered live mysis shrimp). However, do not overfeed, as that could cause the Angler to stop feeding. You may be able to patiently train your Frogfish to eat meaty chunks of seafood (like shrimp and scallops) offered on a feeding stick by occasionally wiggling the food in front of it. Wartskin Angler (Antennarius maculatus) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia Sargassum Fish (Histrio histrio) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With caution Origin: Indian Ocean Assorted Angler (Antennarius sp.) Max Size: 6 to 9" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With caution Origin: Indonesia Striated Angler (Antennarius striatus) Max Size: 8.5" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: South China Sea, Sri Lanka Photos by
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    Dwarf Angelfish

    Dwarf Angelfish, a.k.a. Centropyge Angelfish Centropyge Angelfish are known as Dwarf Angelfish, as they are smaller than other marine angelfish. Centropyge Angelfish are prone to nip at corals and clam mantles, so they might be more suitable in a fish only with live rock (FOWLR) tank. Out of this group, Coral Beauty Angelfish and Flame Angelfish are usually considered the most reef compatible. Dwarf Angelfish require a considerable amount of live rock for foraging as well as for shelter. Centropyge Angelfish are born female and are capable of changing to male when the need arises. However, to prevent aggression with its own kind, it is usually best to keep only one Dwarf Angelfish in your tank. Centropyge Angelfish are omnivores which will benefit from grazing on macroalgae within your tank; but additional algae matter should also be provided via spirulina, marine algae, and high-quality angelfish preparations. In addition, they require other quality meaty foods (like Rod's Food and mysis shrimp). Due to their predisposition to graze on macroalgae and to nip at coral polyps, it is usually not recommended to house Dwarf Angels with expensive corals and/or decorative macroalgae. Pygmy Angelfish (Centropyge argi) a.k.a. Cherub Angelfish Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Caribbean Flameback Angelfish (Centropyge acanthops) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 40 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Africa Coral Beauty Angelfish (Centropyge bispinosa) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Flame Angelfish (Centropyge loricula) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Christmas Island, Marshall Islands Rusty Angelfish (Centropyge ferrugata) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia Bicolor Angelfish (Centropyge bicolor) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 70 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Semi-aggressive Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Melanesia Photos by
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    Gobies

    Gobies There are over two thousand species of Gobies. Being a relatively small fish, they are usually a good fit for nano reef tanks. Some of the smaller species can even be keep in a pico aquarium. Gobies have a tendency to jump when startled, so a good fitting top is highly recommended. They also require sufficient live rock to provide shelter (and perches for Clown Gobies). The proper substrate is also critical for burrowing and sand sifting Gobies. Gobies have an enduring personality and are a favorite of many nano reef keepers. In addition, some species can live in a symbiotic relationship with pistol shrimp; where the goby, with its superior eyesight, exchanges its watchman duties for sharing the shrimp's burrow. Watchman Gobies are start out as females and can become males (protogynous hermaphroditism). While Clown Gobies can change gender depending on its bonded partner, becoming either male or female. Eviota Goby (Eviota pellucida) Max Size: 1" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Cebu Yellow Trimma Goby (Trimma kitrinum) Max Size: 1" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Australia, Guam, Fiji, Samoa Black & White Clown Goby (Gobiodon albofasciatus) Max Size: 1" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Pacific, Australia, Ryukyu Islands, Palau Citron Clown Goby (Gobiodon citrinus) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Fiji, Indonesia, Maldives Neon Blue Goby (Elactinus oceanops) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Western Atlantic Hi Fin Red Banded Goby (Stonogobiops nematodes) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Philippines Species Notes: Has been known to form symbiotic relationships with pistol shrimp. Green Banded Goby (Elacatinus multifasciatus) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Puerto Rico, Western Atlantic Griessingei Goby (Discordipinna griessingeri) a.k.a. Flaming Prawn Goby Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific, Red Sea Catalina Goby (Lythrypnus dalli) Max Size: 2" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Central America Species Notes: The Catalina Goby is a temperate species that lives in water temperatures between 60°F and 70°F; tropical temperatures will shorten its lifespan significantly. Yasha Goby (Stonogobiops yasha) Max Size: 2.5" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: Has been known to form symbiotic relationships with pistol shrimp. Dracula Goby (Stonogobiops dracula) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives, Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka Species Notes: Has been known to form symbiotic relationships with pistol shrimp. Hector's Goby (Koumansetta hectori) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Court Jester Goby (Koumansetta rainfordi) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia, Vanuatu Species Notes: Wild caught gobies might only eat live food, or might take time to transition to prepared foods. Yellow Watchman Goby (Cryptocentrus cinctus) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: Has been known to form symbiotic relationships with pistol shrimp. Orange Stripe Prawn Goby (Amblyeleotris randalli) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: Has been known to form symbiotic relationships with pistol shrimp. Sleeper Gold Head Goby (Valenciennea strigata) Max Size: 5.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Africa, Fiji, Indonesia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka Species Notes: The Yellowheaded Sleeper Goby sifts through the sand looking for food, so an attached pod refugium is recommended. It should be fed multiple times throughout the day with mysis shrimp and/or other meaty food. Diamond Watchman Goby (Valenciennea puellaris) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin; Fiji, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vanuatu Species Notes: The Diamond Watchman Goby sifts through the sand looking for food, so an attached pod refugium is recommended. It should be fed multiple times throughout the day with mysis shrimp and/or other meaty food. Photos by
  22. seabass

    Filefish

    Filefish Filefish do well in captivity, and make good candidates for a fish only with live rock (FOWLR) tank, as they are prone to nip at coral. Provide plenty of live rock, but with ample space to swim. Their diet should include a variety of mysis shrimp, squid, scallop, krill soaked and frozen marine algae. They should be fed at least three times per day. Mimic Saddle Puffer (Paraluterus prionurus) a.k.a. Mimic Filefish Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Mimic Filefish looks like a Valentini Puffer (which is poisonous when eaten by other fish). By mimicking these puffers, most predators will leave them alone. Whitespotted Pygmy Filefish (Rudarius ercodes) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Japan, Taiwan Aiptasia Eating Filefish (Acreichthys tomentosus) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: The Aiptasia Eating Filefish is known to eat Aiptasia, but is prone to nip at corals as well. Orangespotted Filefish (Oxymonacanthus longirostris) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Expert Only Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: The Orangespotted Filefish will only eat live coral in the wild. While possible, getting it to eat other food can be difficult even for an advanced aquarist. Fantail Filefish (Pervagor spilosoma) Max Size: 7" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: No Origin: Hawaii Species Notes: The Fantail Filefish is not reef safe as it feeds upon corals and benthic invertebrates. Tassle Filefish (Chaetodermis penicilligerus) Max Size: 1' Minimum Tank Size: 180 gallons Care level: Easy Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: No Origin: Indo-Pacific Photos by
  23. seabass

    Puffers - Sharpnose

    Sharpnose Puffers, a.k.a. Toby Puffers Sharpnose Puffers, also known as Toby Puffers, belong to the genus Canthigaster. They have colorful patterns and are very inquisitive and personable fish. It's markings are thought to provide camouflage (by disrupting its body shape) in the wild. A fish only tank with live rock (FOWLR) with some larger open areas makes a good home for Toby Puffers. These fish are considered reef safe with caution because it might try to eat invertebrates that fit in its mouth, by crushing its prey with its ever growing beak-like teeth (which must be worn down). Keep re-supplying your Toby with live snails to help wear down its teeth. Ghost shrimp are another good live food which will help wear down its teeth. In addition, you can sometimes find live clams at your local market. Place the clams in some fresh saltwater, so that they open up and flush their wastes (failure to do so can make your puffer sick). Then crack their shells with a nutcracker or pair of pliers just prior to feeding. Wait at least 24 hours before feeding its first prepared meal. These meals include: small mollusks, krill with their shells on them, as well as hard shelled shrimp and crayfish. Avoid making flake food a staple for your puffer (as puffers require more substantial meals). Your new puffer might be finicky at first, but it should learn to accept prepared foods (like frozen cubes of mysis shrimp, squid, and clams) relatively quickly. Many of these foods can be purchased at your local grocery store, but be sure to wash the shellfish which you got from the market, as it might have been treated with chlorine to kill the surface bacteria. And keep its diet varied. Puffers will often beg for food, but it is important not to overfeed them. A single larger prepared meal (or several smaller meals spaced out throughout the day) every other day or so, is better than feeding every day. And even if it is begging for food, don't feed multiple large meals within the same day. You might choose to feed snails on the days where you aren't feeding prepared meals. After they have eaten, you might notice that they have a slight potbelly. A few other notes; when feeding dried foods (like shrimp or krill), you should reconstitute it in water first, so that it doesn't swell up inside the fish's gut. Also, puffers are considered omnivores, and will occasionally graze on algae in the wild. While not a major component, algae is still an important part of their diet. Snails which are gut loaded with algae might be enough, although supplementing algae is still a good idea. It's best to train your puffer to eat in a specific area of the tank. First off, this will give its tank mates an opportunity to eat their meals away from the hungry puffer; and also, because they will be more likely to eat less palatable meals placed in their feeding zone. Leopard Puffer (Canthigaster leoparda) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Micronesia Central American Sharpnose Puffer (Canthigaster punctatissima) Max Size: 3.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Costa Rica, Nicaragua Saddle Valentini Puffer (Canthigaster valentini) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Hawaii, Indonesia, Sumatra Bennett's Sharpnose Puffer (Canthigaster bennetti) Max Size: 4" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Fiji, Indonesia Blue Spotted Puffer (Canthigaster solandri) Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Indo-Pacific, Fiji Spotted Puffer (Canthigaster jactator) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Moderate Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: With Caution Origin: Hawaii Photos by
  24. seabass

    Dragonets

    Dragonets Dragonets (especially Mandarins) are very colorful fish, and are sometimes confused with members of the Goby or Blenny families. They feed almost exclusively on live copepods (although some reef keepers have painstakingly trained their Dragonets to eat frozen food, as a supplement). They should be housed in a well established aquarium with sand, numerous pods, and large amounts of live rock. Without an attached (and very productive) pod refugium, Dragonets will only survive long-term in massive reef tanks (at least by our nano standards), or by dosing a significant amount of cultured reef pods on a regular basis. These fish should only be kept by experienced reef keepers. Ruby Red Dragonet (Synchiropus sycorax) Max Size: 3" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Philippines Spotted Mandarin (Synchiropus picturatus) a.k.a. Yellow Mandarin Dragonet Max Size: 4.5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indonesia Species Notes: Males may have a more elongated dorsal spine. Mandarin Goby (Synchiropus splendidus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Philippines Species Notes: Within this species, there are Red, Green, and Blue Mandarins. Red Scooter Dragonet (Synchiropus stellatus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Maldives, Sri Lank Scooter Blenny (Synchiropus ocellatus) Max Size: 5" Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Fiji, Indonesia, Solomon Islands Orange and Black Dragonet (Dactylopus kuiteri) Max Size: 6" Minimum Tank Size: 50 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Indo-Pacific Species Notes: Their diet consists of small crustaceans that are present in a well established reef tank with plenty of live rock. Brine shrimp, bloodworms, glassworms, and small invertebrates should be offered daily to supplement their diet. Fingered Dragonet (Dactylopus dactylopus) Max Size: 1' Minimum Tank Size: 90 gallons Care level: Difficult Temperament: Peaceful Reef Compatible: Yes Origin: Cebu Species Notes: Requires large amounts of live rock in which they find their micro-crustacean prey. Finely chopped seafood can help supplement their diet. Photos by
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