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  1. Offers...baby needs shoes.
  2. Selling my GHL Mitras 6200HV. Incredible fixture but moving up to a different tank. Priced for quick sale at $425.00 including shipping to lower 48. Christmas is coming
  3. Update, my Elos Mini is no longer in operation. He is why and I am leaving out some of the story because I cant recall the details of each step. I noticed that the sealant along the front pane was separating. Of course I was concerned, but it seemed that is was mainly just the filet and not between the panes. Worried, but not a panic. I notified Elos America via email. No response for a couple of days, so I called and they said that they had seen my email but don’t worry it didn’t seem structural. 3 days later I noticed salt creep along the outside of the tank along the front panel seam about 3 inches from the top. Now its time to panic. Wrapped the tank with duct tape to provide some support, started transferring my livestock to a Rubbermaid tub. After draining the tank and doing a close inspection I could see that most of the filet on the right side had lifted and a lesser amount on the left side was doing the same About a 2 – 3 inch section near the top for the right side was separated all the way through and seeping water. Notified Elos America nd they said , “no problem we will replace the tank right away “ and will be in touch. A few days go by and I inquire the status. Told no problem’s, call Aquarium Specialty and they will take care of you. I didn’t by if from Aquarium Specialty, I bought it from the NYC Elos Aquastudio. Called Scott at Aquarium Specialty and he was very helpful and said that Elos American had told him of my failure but didn’t know what he was supposed to do since he has no Elos Aquariums of any kind but would do whatever he could to try to understand what Elos wanted him to accomplish. I contact Elos America and they say, no problem and for me to call the NYC Studio and they will “take care of me”. I called NYC several times and they don’t answer the phone. Finally, I got them to answer the phone and NYC says they are moving and the warehouse is a mess but would try to send one out soon and send me tracking info. A week later I hear nothing, try calling and no answer, email 3 times no response and they still don’t answer the phone. Contact Elos America and they again say “no problem, we take care of you. A couple of days later I am told that it was shipped but the shipping company think they may have broken the tank and are returning it to NYC for inspection. NYC emails me and says when it gets to them they will inspect the tank and if all is we/l they will reship. Never heard back from NYC. Contact Elos America and hear “no problem, we take care of everything” and have one shipped from Italy. Days go by, I email Elos America and ask if it has shipped or do they know when it will ship. Its been 30 days so far. Several days later they say Italy will ship but will take 20 days and I will have to pay for the shipping. I ask if NYC was going to just ship the tank without any charge would it be possible for the Dallas Aquastudio to ship me one as they seem to have it in stock. They say, no problem, we take care of you and will contact Dallas. Days go by, I am now getting unhappy and let Elos America know its been a long time and no tank, no tracking and no indication one will be shipped. Their response is they are out of country and it hard to communicate. Its 45 days now and no tank, no tracking and no indication one will ever be shipped. I email Elos America and say, I been told at least 8 -12 times that a tank will be shipped and nothing happens. The response is Elos America is just a middle man and can’t make any decisions and in their words and I quote (keep in mind their is a language learning curve) Pasted from my email: "... ELOS not good .. It why I work to go one here in the US with all my family , to try to change , all mistake ELOS do ...." WHAT the heck! So my response to Elos America…after 45 days and a dozens promises that ELOS will honor their warranty it seems its just promises and nothing more. I cave and say thanks, I don’t want this to continue any longer and I will go elsewhere. I may try to repair the tank myself (I have built tanks before) or I may take the easy way out and order a Red Sea Reefer. Thanks for allowing me to post my rant. I have never bashed a company publicly before. Elos makes a beautiful aquarium. Sometimes you do get a product out the door that has a problem, I understand that, but thats when you step up and replace your defective product. So…If your considering an Elos Aquarium, be advised it’s an incredibly expensive work of art but if anything goes wrong..too bad.
  4. SOLD, Thanks nano-reef.com For Sale: Two MP-10 QD Wireless. Excellent Condition. Selling because I need MP-40's for new tank. Price $175 each or save $25 if you buy both. Includes shipping and PayPal.
  5. Sold...thanks nano-reef
  6. FOR SALE: ATI 6x24 Dimmable Fixture. 7.5 months old. Perfect condition, no scratches, rust, dents, water spots, Shield is scratch free, etc. Includes ATI Hanging Kit and 6 lamps with 2.5 months use. (3 Giesemann Actinic Blue, 1 ATI Blue+, 1 ATI Coral+, 1 ATI Purple +). Looks about like 16K to my eye. Selling because I am going with a different tank. $400.00 including shipping and PayPal fees.
  7. Seems there has been several "whats the best salt" threads here and on a few other forums lately. I copied this from Polish site and used google translate so there are probably many errors. So...for those that want this type of info...here ya go. Link to site: http://reefhub.pl/test-soli-drugie-starcie/ Test salt - a second start AdmissionI present to you the second part of the article Fri. Test Salt ( link to the first part ), which for me was a challenge for many reasons. First of all, because in spite of intensive research science is still not able to give answers to many questions, and manufacturers keep their know-how "under lock and key. In this case, it is difficult to explain some of the results obtained. Secondly, I realize that a lot of people on the basis of this text will decide about the salt used. The conducted tests, however, have selective. Technically speaking, it would be repeated in a few months to check the reproducibility of the composition. Third, test the salt probably trigger a lively discussion forums aquarium. I admit that I really count on it, because I do not want to insert the entire work went unnoticed. But I am apprehensive when it comes to some conspiracy theories, about which I have already read. Therefore, I would immediately cut off any potential speculation. Both me and portal Reefhub.pl not accepted any bribes for writing this text.I'm not related to any producer of salt participating in this test, and all results have been developed in an honest and reliable as possible. While analyzing the results, some concerns were discussed with the head of the laboratory of the Provincial Environmental Protection Inspectorate in Lodz, MA. Ing. Vladimir Andrzejczak. When interpreting some of the results, it could not, however, eliminate some element of subjectivity, which does not necessarily agree with the opinions of other users of the salt. Test, but what?Before we analyze the salt sea, we first need to raise the question of the chemistry of the water in the aquarium. Often the question is asked on the forums about the best performance. However, the problem lies in the fact that at least in my opinion there is no such thing as a perfect performance, and with a saltwater aquarium speaks frequently about the optimum range of parameters. Sea water contains in its composition of nearly all elements. The theory of the origin of sea water was formulated in 1715 by Sir Edmund Halley (of comet), which has accepted that part of the salt and other minerals came from the leaching of the soil by rain water that feed the river. Still the power of the oceans river waters increased the concentration of minerals in seawater. Halley's theory was partly correct. However, today we know that sodium ions found their way into the oceans through the bottom during the formation of the oceans, and the source of chloride ions were gases from the earth, which were placed in the water from underwater volcanoes and hydrothermal vents. So does a good sea salt should reflect the entire periodic table? In no case. Firstly, neither easy nor cheap. That's what ions in this case are important? First of all, from the point of view of coral limestone, the fundamental importance are the main macronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, bicarbonates, strontium, iodine, potassium, bar ... and their number has stabilized billions of years ago on the same level. Here we touch the most important characteristics of seawater, namely the constancy of its composition. In the previous part of this article I explained the principle Dittmar, so just give a reminder that the German scientist studying the composition of sea water.He found that the ratio of individual macro sea is constant and independent of latitude and longitude. Compare, but to what?The first reaction I had to compare these salts with one another. However, after long reflection, I thought it was a bad idea. With such a large number of parameters of each salt I would not be able to give any reliable opinion. Because how to compare the two salts, when one example. Calcium level is 440mg / L and the other levels of magnesium 1600mg / L. Thinking about the stability of the parameters of the water on the reef I thought it would be safest to compare the parameters investigated in relation to the salt sea water that either, or what is the natural environment for corals. But here it would be fitting to ask a question that has always been quite controversial. Whether in the home saltwater aquariums it comes to copying nature? Personally, I think that there is no such possibility or need. They break us such seemingly trivial problems like chemical stability, purity of ingredients, trophic relations or eutrophication. Therefore, in many cases, we use a kind of "prosthesis" that can not mimic the mechanisms known from the reef, but quite effectively aspire to similar effects. Such "prosthesis" can be skimmers, refugia, metering pumps and other appliances popular in salt water aquariums. When it comes to chemistry, in my opinion, instead of creating a "wszystkomające" sea salts, to better focus on the fundamental ingredients, and the rest entrust prudent supplementation. It seems that the above-mentioned rule Stability composition should be postponed until the salt sea. Therefore, by analyzing the composition of salt in terms of macronutrients I shall refer it to the Natural Sea Water (NSW). And basically this would have ended analysis of the composition of salt. It is not about ignoring micronutrients and trace elements, but for the good of salt are of secondary importance. This is because it is a macro is a base chemical in the aquarium, and it refers to it most of the tests. And depending on the type of corals, and so usually we use additional supplementation, which complements the microelements. And now the third part is some manufacturers (perhaps all, but this unfortunately was not able to confirm) use natural ingredients. Such compounds include natural. MgCl 2 contain trace elements that were trapped during the crystallization. Thus provided are rare trace elements without the addition of salt. Despite intensive research work on the biology of corals, still little is known about their biochemistry. This makes it difficult debate on the content of some components. Therefore the use of ingredients "contaminated" in the natural trace elements, provides us with their presence without the need to dispense all of the elements in the Periodic Table. This means that in assessing the salt just the right composition of macronutrients is the most important because they play a fundamental role in ensuring the health of invertebrates inhabiting marine aquarium, especially coral limestone SPS and LPS. selection saltThe test was attended by seven of salt aquarium: Aqua Forest Reef Salt (AF) Blue Treasure Reef Sea Salt (BT) DD H2Ocean (H2O) Instant Ocean (IO) Reef Crystals (RC) Red Sea Coral Pro (RSCP) Tropic Marine Pro Reef They were chosen on the basis of popularity in the Polish market. Of course, the selected salts do not cover the whole market. However, the main criterion for limiting the amount of salt were finance and logistics capabilities. To give you a full picture, in the test they participated salts, which are considered "poor" for example. Instant Ocean, Reef Crystals, and those that are considered "rich", eg. The Red Sea Coral Pro or H2Ocean. The test could not be held without popular on the Polish market Aquaforest salt, which causes strong emotions in the forums. Each salt was purchased in the original, at least dwukilogramowym package. The scope of testingEach of the salt concerned was subjected to a two-stage test. The first part was based on all the measurements that can be done in home conditions: The yield of the salt 35ppt The pH after 45 minutes of stirring KH after 45 minutes of stirring Higroskopijność Their dissolution in 23C Clarity The second stage of the test consisted of analyzing samples of each salt spectrometer ICP-OES (Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy) .This stage gave us information on the chemical composition of each salt. By using ICP indicated by the following elements: Na, Ca, Mg, K, Sr, B, Br, S, Li, Be, Ba, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al, Si, As, Sb, Sn, Cd, Se, Mo, Hg, P (PO4), Pb, I It is worth noting that the method of ICP-OES is ideal for the determination of the composition of the water as far as we are interested in the amount of elements, not particles. In most situations this is sufficient for us, but it will be a problem for the determination of silicate. The results, which refer to the gained silicon instead silicate which basically means that such a result is entirely inapplicable. MethodologyEach sample was prepared in the same way. Prior to the test once I saved nearly 80L of water Rodi. To prepare each salt solution was carefully weighed 10 kg (= 10L) at a temperature of 23C water. To eliminate any confusion, each solution was prepared and tested individually. The goal is to test a solution was prepared again. Each solution was mixed for 45 minutes using a pump Rio 2500, which was rinsed in pure water Rodia after use. All solutions were mixed in the same buckets. - Performance of salt at 35pptTo measure the salinity refractometers used two. One of them is a typical refractometer lunetowy company Deltek H2Ocean seawater. The second is an electronic refractometers Atago PAL-06S. Both devices were calibrated against measurements. The amount of salt used to obtain a salinity of 35ppt in 10L water was weighed by an electronic balance with an accuracy of 0.01 g. In practice, however, it turned out that the readability of both refractometers are too small to give results in fractions of a gram, so I decided to analyze the results of the round value to 1g. The first measurement was performed after filling salinity 390g of the salt, and then, depending on the result of the weighed sub-samples. After obtaining salinity 35ppt recorded weight was consumed salt. - PH 45 minutachAfter 45 minutes of mixing salt was performed to measure the pH of a calibrated pH meter Voltcraft PH-100ATC. - KH AlkalicznośćAfter 45 minutes of stirring the salt alkalinity measurement was performed with a photometer Hanna HI755 - HigroskopijnośćHygroscopicity was to determine the weight gain of a sample of salt. Polycarbonate plaque spreading of a thin sample of a salt of the starting weight 7g. After 10 minutes, re-measurement was performed of the sample weight. Weight gain was determined by subtracting the initial score of the final. When weighing the recorded relative humidity = 48% at 22,7C. The second part of the measure was to check the susceptibility to sticking (stone) salt.Up to seven identical molds were measured exactly 100 g each salt. All molds have been left open for 20 hours, after which an attempt was made to spill any salt. - Easy to dissolveIn the beginning it was planned to measure the dissolution rate. In practice, however, it was difficult to assess whether the salt is completely dissolved, without exclusion pump and calm water. Since all of the salts dissolved within 5-7 minutes. I decided that I will not devote more space solubility. - ClarityAfter stirring, to the bottom of the bucket saline was put on a white-black contrast pattern. Subjective evaluation of clarity was carried out on the basis of the turbidity of the template. All salt solutions were evaluated in the same place and with the same light - Analysis of the componentsEach salt solution has been downloaded 15ml sample. After describing the instructions, all samples were sent for laboratory analysis of Triton-Lab in Dusseldorf. To check the reproducibility of the results, with a salt solution were prepared two samples. interpretation of results The yield of the salt 35pptPerformance salt primarily affected by the nature of the ingredients used. As I said in the first part of the article, some salts my different degree of hydration, hydration or molecule. Hydration is the fact that during the crystallization of the salt in the crystal lattice of water molecules are trapped. The more water molecules, the kind of "the concentration of salt in the salt" is reduced. For instance, magnesium chloride hexahydrate MgCl 2 x 6H2O contains up to six water molecules, which together weigh more than the molecule itself MgCl 2 . In practice, this translates into a yield of salt. For jednomolowe concentration of the solution of MgCl 2 we need to pour about 95 g of anhydrous MgCl 2 and up to about 203G hexahydrate. 108g more to obtain the same concentration. This is the main reason why different salts have different performance. The second reason is the molecular weight of the compounds used, which are different for different salts. J f you want to get jednomolowe concentration of Mg 2+ we weigh about 95 grams of anhydrous MgCl 2 , and using magnesium sulfate, we have to weigh more than 120g of MgSO 4 . Figure 1 shows the amount of salt in grams required to obtain a salinity of 35ppt in 10L water. Only two salts obtained result below 400g. It is worth mentioning that the salts and Instant Ocean Reef Crystals are produced by the same manufacturer. The situation is similar with salts H2Ocean and Red Sea Coral Pro (RSCP) - rumor has it that arise in the same factory. Both salts are natural and whose base is formed by seawater desalination. These are the most efficient salt in our test. Analyzing the above tables should make allowance price in your store. Perhaps the salt, which is more efficient weight is not cost-efficient. To calculate this, simply do the following calculation for substitution 10L: If przemnożymy is the result of the above graph we get the price of one substitution 10L The pH after 45 minutes of stirring.One of the most important parameters affecting include the rate of calcification is the pH of the water in the aquarium. The ideal pH fluctuates around 8,2-8,4. From experience, however, I know that every result over 8 will be very decent. Only values ​​below 7.7 may be disturbing. Figure 2 shows the pH of the solution salinity 35ppt after 45 minutes of stirring At pH levels are affected by many factors, eg. Ventilation room, the presence of refuge, przerybienie tank, the economy of Ca 2+ , HCO 3 , lighting and much more. In a mature aquarium pH of the salt used for substitution, has no significant effect on the pH of the water in the aquarium. Momentary minimum stroke pH is of course possible, but the chemical processes in the aquarium quickly determine the appropriate pH, regardless of the pH of the brine. Besides substituting up to 10% water pH will likely jump 10 times smaller, and substituting 5% - 20 times smaller than would appear from the same differences in pH in the aquarium and fresh brine. KH after 45 minutes of stirringAlkalinity (KH), is one of the most important water parameters in the marine aquarium.Housing KH at the appropriate level to influence a number of processes, control of pH-fluctuations by filtration efficiency to a probiotic effectiveness calcification coral calcium.Sam parameter is quite complicated and often misunderstood. Definitions that "alkalinity is the acid neutralizing capacity" of many aquarists completely does not say anything. This can be explained in a way that reduces the alkalinity of the pH variations of the solution of the buffer system H 2 CO 3 <=> HCO 3- + H + . But let's leave that definition, because the same parameter deserves a separate article. Fortunately for us aquarists, alkalinity (KH) translates easily to the amount of bicarbonate ions in the water. It is they who are the source of carbonates during the calcification of calcium carbonate CaCO 3 . And the purpose of this article, this information is enough for us. Figure 3 - The alkalinity of saline a salinity of 35ppt after 45 minutes of stirring. About the appropriate level of KH wakes up in the aquarium some controversy. On the one hand, KH 7 of seawater is the second leading salts aquarium keeping is significantly elevated levels of KH. Chart 3 clearly shows this distinction. Sole Aquaforest, Blue Treasure Tropic Marine maintain KH similar to sea water (NSW) and reservations here can not have. The remaining four salts have much higher levels of KH, and if RSCP almost twice higher than in NSW. What is the meaning of such an action? It turns out that there is scientific evidence to justify such action. But in order to explain them here, I have to refer to the process of calcification. Figure 4. Transport and deposition of calcium carbonate by coral tissue matrix of calcium (modified Furla et al, Journal of Exp. Biol., 2000). In Figure 4 we see the cross-section of tissue and skeleton of coral. Coelenteron otherwise gastrovascular cavity. This is the transported ions, Ca 2+ ions and HCO 3 in the direction of the calcium matrix backbone, or calcification points. The problem is that the transport of these ions is opposite to the concentration gradient. The concentration of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 in the fluid calicoblastycznym is higher than sea water, because the coral actively transports ions. For such transport occurred, coral consumes large amounts of energy in the form of ATP. In order to realize this, imagine a fish flowing upstream and downstream. Fish swimming against the tide needs more energy to overcome the resistance of water than swimming with the current. In case of calcification in "shock" a high concentration of ions in the liquid calicoblastycznym.Coral must provide the energy for this process. Why do I say it? Now, research on the process of calcification have provided interesting information. It turns out that the higher the concentration of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 in coelenteronie, the coral needs less energy to transport the ions to the matrix limestone. Let's see the following figures: Figure 5. Transport building material in the direction opposite to the gradient of concentration of (A) and in accordance with the concentration gradient (. The effort coral can be likened to climbing uphill (A) and the descent from the top ( Elevated KH certain salts are the latest studies are designed to facilitate transportation of corals, and thus accelerate the growth of corals. Here, an important note. To coral well he endured high levels of Ca 2+ and KH must have an abundance of food in the form of phosphates and NO 3 - or amino acids and strong light. Otherwise it will happen, which is something I read on the forums, or bleaching tipów SPSów. This suggests that high levels of salts of calcium and bicarbonate is not very suitable for staining SPS corals. Well, unless you really know exactly how many amino acids dispensed. How do we give too much, corals begin to brown, as too little risk effect "of burned tipów." It seems that these salts should check carefully the young tanks where we have detectable levels of NO 3 - and PO 4 3+ and small sprout corals, we want to grow quickly. On the other hand, it is worth mentioning that the salt Red Sea Coral Pro is part of the whole system supplements developed by Red Sea - Reef Care Program. It consists in dispensing a variety of different components according to specific tables. Assuming you use the program, which takes into account all the supplements then use salt RSCP of high performance makes sense. Following this logic, using the same salt RSCP by inexperienced aquarists carries the risk of abnormal parameters. It is worth mentioning that elaborate "copyright" programs carry containers such. ZeoVit whether the abovementioned Reef Care Program, they are quite expensive to conduct and require high conscientiousness. If my "what if" is correct, salts of natural levels of Ca 2+ and KH would probably universal use in the demanding and mature systems where more care about coral coloration than their increases. For inexperienced aquarists negative side of the use of salt with elevated levels of KH is necessary to adjust the supplementation. While in the case Balling method is relatively simple, so much the use of calcium reactor such correction is difficult. On the other hand, I know one of Warsaw's tank run by an experienced aquarist, who used continuously just RSCP salt and calcium reactor without any problems, either with the parameters or the colors of corals. HigroskopijnośćHygroscopicity is the ability of some substances to absorb moisture. In this case, it depends on the absorption of water vapor and binding the web of the crystalline salt.Many chemicals have greater or lesser binding capacity of moisture, but one of the more hygroscopic salts used to make the aquarium calcium chloride CaCl 2 . This salt is known in the form of anhydrous (CaCl 2 ), as the monohydrate (CaCl 2 · H 2 O), dihydrate (CaCl 2 · 2H 2 O) and as a hexahydrate (CaCl 2 · 6H 2 O). The less hydrated salt, the stronger is hygroscopic. Calcium chloride can absorb moisture so intensively that the crystalline form can change into a solution. It is worth noting that the intensity of hygroscopic also depends on humidity. Salt and held regularly opened in wet areas will be more vulnerable to this effect. By the way, hydrated calcium chloride, of course, changing its molar mass. Variety anhydrous weighs about 111g / mol, and the variety hexahydrate weighs 219g / mol, which is irrelevant in assessing the performance of salt. Stock 6 - Crystals CaCl 2 intensively absorb water from the air and convert it into a solution. The effect of the hygroscopic salt is of course the disadvantage of sea salt and what is worse, we can not eliminate it completely. If it is a small amount, does not affect the quality and stability of parameters of salts in the long run may lead to adverse chemical reactions, eg. Precipitation of carbonates. Let's look at the sketch below. Crystals CaCl 2 absorb moisture from the air by increasing its hydration. Until some time crystals CaCl 2 maintain their integrity but after a while increasing the number of water molecules causes the ionic forces begin to "pull" isolated ions from the crystal lattice of calcium chloride. The crystalline structure begins to fall and will move the free ions in the aqueous solution of Ca 2+ and Cl - .When a solution of "touches" crystal NaHCO 3 will be the dissociation of hydrogen and the reaction between the cations Ca 2+ and anions CO 3 2- which will cause precipitation of calcium carbonate in solid form because of the very low solubility. This process reduces the parameters salt Figure 7 - The highly hygroscopic calcium chloride CaCl 2 can cause the reaction with sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 (skipping the presence of protons in order to simplify the drawing) In the above-described phenomenon is related to the possibility of petrifaction salt. If the salt are operating in conditions of variable humidity and temperature of the moisture bound in the salt may "posklejać" crystals, causing solidification of the flowing salt in a single body. As long as we get a clear solution, it should not be a problem with the parameters. However, a clear haze can be a signal to verify the parameters of brine, in particular in the range KH, Ca and Mg. Hygroscopic salt is a natural feature. Some manufacturers add to it antyzbrylaczem, which are to protect the salt against the above-described effects of moisture. The industry uses several types of anti-caking agents as appropriate. The salt is used potassium ferrocyanide, but I found a statement Ron Shimka that potassium ferrocyanide or sodium is not used in the aquarium hobby. Another popular antyzbrylaczem aluminosilicates are - substantially insoluble in water with a strong ability to bind moisture. As the producers are not willing to share such information, I do not got information about specific antyzbrylaczach used in the salts of the sea. Figure 8 - Change in weight siedmiogramowych samples of salt for 10 minutes at a relative humidity of 48% (temp 22,7C) (more = less) Chart supports a thesis that each salt will she absorbed moisture from the air. The best in this respect fell salt Tropic Marine, whose weight increased by only 0.05 g, which is a 0.71 percent increase. In the same study salt Aquaforest increased its weight of 0.12 g which represents growth of 1.71% by weight. The first test was designed to demonstrate the sensitivity of salt on short-term access to the air. This situation is most common place during weekly water changes. The second test but had to demonstrate sensitivity to salt on long-term exposure to air.Such situations occur, as a result of inaccurate close or damaged packaging. Stock 8a - measured off 100 g of each salt and allowed to stand for 20 hours After 20 hours all samples were again weighed, and weight gain Figure 8d shows. After weighing, all samples were gently as possible removed from the molds. Photo 8b - shows samples of salt right out of the molds Clearly, salts AF IO RC due to absorbed moisture retained the shape molds in which they were in the past 20 hours. Other salts retain some flowability. However, this part of the salt that was in contact with air is now covered with the deeper layers of the salt to which the air is not occurred. On closer inspection, it turned out that: AF salt, although initially maintaining the shape of the mold easily falls apart until the solidified disc salt. Eventually the puck crumbled into small lumps. Sole BT, H2O and RSCP, which retained the greatest flowability also produced glued rings, but very easily crumbled them in his fingers without leaving lumps. Salts RC and IO fallen completely in this test completely succumbing skamienieniu.What was needed was a relatively large force to crush the solidified salt. It was impossible, however, to get a normal flowability. Salt TM generally fared best in this assay. Initially, the album solidified falling apart in my fingers. Here's how they looked samples after gentle removal of loose layers of salt Stock 8C - Comp salts tested after removal of the bulk layer. In contrast to the previous test for moisture absorption, in which the samples were scattered on the plastic base, this time were left in small molds for a long time, and air access to the sample was only from the top. Figure 8d - weight change stugramowych salt samples after 20 hours. (More = less) AF salt, which in the short test "saw" the moisture quickly, this time fell in the middle of the pack. It follows that the AF quickly gets wet, but zawilgotniona the upper layer isolates the lower layers of salt. For a variety salt of the TM, which in rapid test showed the lowest level become wet, test dwudziestogodzinnym absorbed much water. The plate with samples of salt left also for 20 hours. Photo showing an appearance of the samples after this time. Stock 8e - the appearance of the samples after 20 hours of salt confirmed hygroscopic salt. All samples show the effect of "glass transition". However, the most "vitrified" samples salts AF, IO, RC. Below pictures of a small sample of each salt. It is clear that the examined salts are not homogeneous. The difference in grain size can have a significant impact on the stratification of salt. During the transport, handling or due to vibration wooden floor finer particles sink to the bottom and remain higher on the mountain. This may explain why some parameters of the salt may vary at the beginning and end of the same package. It should be remembered that, during normal use of the salt crushing and abrasion dust is formed, hydrochloric acid, which falls to the bottom. It is difficult to say, but in terms of homogeneity probably fared the worst TM salt, and the best IO and RC. Photos may not give, but my subjective assessment also shows that recently spent a lot of time over these salts. Photo 9 - Photos of 'macro' salts tested. Picture in the lower right corner shows the effect of salt moisture. All seven of salt clung to the base after it reversed "upside down" ClarityFor the clarity of the water is its clarity. It is affected all kinds of suspended particles that scatter water. From the point of view of the aquarist, the lack of clarity is only cosmetic significance and if it is not caused by the precipitation of carbonates is usually disappears after a few minutes the water changes. To minimize turbidity always dosypywać salt in portions to the mixing water. Always after filling salt water there is an immediate turbidity, but at this stage they are precipitating microscopic bubbles. But just wait a few minutes and the gas to evaporate. Stock 10 - shows a comparison of the pattern lying on the bottom of each salt solution.Template is black and white. The deeper the black the more clear water. Chemical analysisCreate a good and balanced sea salt is not an easy task. Constant moisture, grinding the ingredients, mixing, control of reproducibility and purity of the components are just some of the challenges. Let's see how the composition of macronutrients in different salts: Figure 11 - The concentration of Ca 2+ (mg / L) tested a salinity of 35ppt salts. In fact, only IA and IO May calcium levels similar to sea water. Other salts have these elevated levels. Chart 12- alkalinity (dKH) in the examined salts. Only salt Aquaforest consistently maintains a level similar to NSW. KH salt Blue Treasure also similar to NSW. Sole Reef Crestals, H2Ocean and Red Sea Coral Pro clearly pay homage studies showing accelerated growth of corals at elevated levels of Ca 2+ and bicarbonate (KH). While surprising lack of determination in the case of salts IO. With almost natural level of calcium, considering the high KH. Figure 13 - The level of magnesium Mg 2+ (mg / L) in the examined salts. Most of the salt keeps magnesium levels do not deviate too much from NSW. Salt RSCP consistently keeps a high level of components kalcyfikujących. The surprise is the level of magnesium in salt Blue Treasure. It seems that this is a deliberate tactic manufacturer because signals so high magnesium came a long time ago. I can not, however, explain this tactic. If this level is not something very dangerous with so many corals may react browning on the concentration of magnesium. Figure 14 - The level of Na + (mg / L) in the examined salts. Sodium ions and chloride are the main regulator of salinity. In our study, however, we do not have results chloride concentration, which hinders accurate interpretation of results. Most of the salt level holds NSW. An exception is the salt of Blue Treasure, wherein the levels of Na + is lower than the natural law of 600mg / L. Mass and ion anything but agree. Sodium and magnesium atoms have a similar molar mass. Dwudodatnich excess magnesium ions (about 700 m / L) is almost exactly half the size of cant (about 350 mg / L), one positive sodium ions. If the manufacturer is equalized would be quite tolerably Figure 15 - The level of potassium ions (mg / L) in the examined salts. AF traditionally excels at natural levels of K +. IO, RC this time also hold level of NSW. Salt BT and TM have a sizable shortfall K + . H2Ocean while the 50 mg / LK + more than in NSW. Figure 16 - The level of bromide ions (mg / L) in the examined salts. Brom is one of those elements that we know that are present in the tissues of corals, but still can not accurately describe their function. It is understood that with bromate and potassium iodide affect staining beads. Most of the salt keeps roughly the level of NSW. Only TM and BT have understated the value of bromate. The salt BT it is 18 times less than in NSW. It's a bit surprising, because I do not know the exact function of the biological use of bromides by corals, it would be worth to keep as natural levels. Chart 17 - Level borates (mg / L) in the examined salts. As you can see, the iron rule of salt AF is to keep the parameters of NSW. Other salts with the exception of the RC the BR and the like. The importance of borates is not entirely clear, but studies have shown that play an important role at the calcification processes Figure 18 - The level of strontium ions (mg / L) in the investigated salts - The first surprise is almost double excess natural saline AF. Studies show the importance Sr 2+ during the process of calcification. However, there are a lot of sources confirming the relatively high toxicity of strontium even at small overflows. Sole BT and RSCP clearly elevated levels of Sr 2+ , though still much lower than the AF. Other salts keep the level of NSW Figure 19 - the level of sulfur in the examined salts. As I mentioned above, the method of ICP-OES gives the results for atoms, not molecules. The surface seawater essentially all of the sulfur present in the form of an ion SO 4 2- , and only in the anaerobic zone appearing in the form of sulfide (H 2 S). For the purposes of this article I assume that the only source of sulfur in the given results are sulfates. All salts except the AF showed a sulfur levels similar to those of NSW. Salt AF this time shows a more than fourfold deficiency relative to seawater. Conducted research on the speciesAcropora tenuis showed a significant role sulfate (sulphate transponders) in the biochemical processes komórkek. High concentration of organic sulfur were also found in the centers of kalcyfikacyjnych coral limestone. However, it seems that the aquarium system has no need for particular natural levels of sulfur that come from various signals with unfavorable accumulation of sulphate in mature vessels. Perhaps the manufacturer of the SA intentionally keeps understated sulphates. Table 20 - The graph shows the content of metals in the salts of the sea. Analyzing these results must take into account a few things. First of all values ​​were converted to micrograms. They are the size of which no home test does not detect. Secondly, please pay attention to the red marked for all exceeded, both the minimum. Examples are zinc (Zn) salt in the TM and the repeated. Examples are zinc (Zn) salt Rc. Thirdly, in many aquariums dominated stained SPSy part of these values ​​is exceeded, and so with respect NSW not because of their content of salt used, but the supplementation of trace elements. Such is. In the case of copper (Cu). Many coral bleaching preparations contain copper at levels above the NSW. Fourth result of silicon (Si) is indicated in harmless based on the silicon and not on silicates, which may cause problems. This is due to the specifics of the analysis of ICP-OES, what I wrote above. Looking at the above results, you have to pay attention to the huge excess of zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) salt RC (manganese, moreover, is not detectable only in salt AF).Even taking into account that the Mn 2+ is one of the less toxic heavy metals, may wonder that the producers commit to such transgressions. Manganese is involved in photosynthesis and in the processes of oxidation-reduction, is part of some enzymes.As for the aluminum (Al) it is possible that its presence is related to the use of anti-caking agents, as written on the occasion of hygroscopicity. The worst salt producers coped with a bar (Ba). This element is important in embryonic development of many marine animals for example. Echinoderms. Perhaps the factor responsible for the fact that many marine animals can not grow and reproduce in aquariums are unnaturally high concentrations of certain elements. It seems legitimate to assume that many of the crossings is not so much of an overdose as the use of low-quality products. I can not imagine that the producer of salt Reef Crystals deliberately dispense elements such as cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) knowingly allowing for such overruns. On the other hand, we do not know whether these exceedances at levels dangerous to life in a marine aquarium. In any event, included in the components of lower purity should affect the price of the salt. Figure 21 - measured levels of PO 4 3- (mg / L) in the investigated salts The only salts, which have been detected phosphates is Instant Ocean and the Red Sea Coral Pro. There are, however, a lesser quantity of NSW. Apart from the fact that the popular photometer Hanna HI713 would not be able to detect such quantities, phosphates have a significant impact on many biochemical processes, such as the transport of energy, or the construction of cellular organelles. Fortunately, the aquarium can not descend to the level of PO 4 3- to absolute zero. Data on the levels of phosphates in NSW repeated for the "Aquarium Corals" Eric Bornemann. He gives in his work three phosphate levels: Minimum: 0,00ppm, maximum: 0,54ppm and average value 0,13ppm, which I used in the chart. SummaryAll those who jumped the whole article to get the information that the salt is the best I have to disappoint. From the very beginning it was not my goal to choose a winner, and only show features popular salt. It's up to you to determine whether the characteristics you are responsible or not. However, in order not to leave you without a collective summary tables below importantly to me the characteristics of each salt. Aquaforest Reef Salt - Polish salt production, which vigorously gaining market. You can see that the manufacturer has set a goal of obtaining a brine that will (with a few exceptions, eg. Sulfur, strontium, barium, iodine, iron), possible an exact copy of a natural sea water. It is also a salt, which I think stands out in terms of quality and purity substrates used. Salt AF seems to be a universal salt tanks SPSowych different stages of advancement, especially for those aquarists who seek to obtain the best color of their corals. This, however, will require additional supplementation. The quality of the ingredients, unfortunately, translates to a high hygroscopic and risk petrifaction salt.According to my eye, salt AF showed the least clarity of all the salts tested Blue Treasure Reef Sea Salt - salt, which recently has become popular on the Polish market. Salt fairly performs well in terms of the purity substrates with only three (but big) exceeded micronutrients. A little less it falls under the terms of macronutrients presenting fairly chaotic imbalance in their concentrations: KH supposedly comparable to NSW but increased calcium and magnesium giant. On the other hand, based on the NSW contains almost no bromide. As regards the resistance to hygroscopicity and petrification salt BT results are very good. Whoever will lead tank of salt, however, must take into account the high magnesium. Adapting supplementation can be a challenge for less experienced aquarists. H2Ocean - salt branded by DD Solutions However, rumor has it that comes from the same factory as the Red Sea Coral Pro. It is a salt in which many of the ingredients originated from sea water desalination. Producers of salt probably excel in aquariums SPSowe. So in any case result from elevated substrates kalcyfikacyjnych. High KH, Ca and Mg are, according to scientific studies support the growth of coral limestone. This salt, which I have not written before, very dusty during pouring. This may have an impact on the corrosion of metal parts. In spite of considerable hygroscopic salt H2O retains long flow properties and resistance to petrification. Salt H2O seems to be quite versatile, with an indication of the tanks SPSowe young and less mature and overgrown. Instant Ocean - Salt of the traditions of French production. For years considered as poor, good salt to start an aquarium. Tests of this salt from 2008 (http://reefsaltanalysis.googlepages.com/AWT_Salt_Analysis_0208.pdf ) actually confirmed it. Current tests show how this salt has changed, even though the forums all the time is considered poor. Most of the macro in addition to the high KH does not differ significantly from the levels of NSW, which is its advantage. Salt IO, however, has a lot of exceedances in the field of trace elements. Despite the seemingly low hygroscopicity tests, salt IO fared very poorly in terms of the ability to petrifaction. Also obtained the worst performance. Due to the considerable pollution micronutrient salt is more suitable for systems that require very resistant soft corals. Increased macro suggest the possibility of breeding montipor simple and Acropora. However, obtaining pastel colors SPS corals can be a challenge. Reef Crystals - the second test salt French manufacturer. So far, it has been considered a richer variety of salt IO. I think I made ​​my biggest disappointment. Poor performance, most crossings in microelements and petrification after 20 hours - is probably its biggest drawbacks. This salt was the only one received Ca level above 500 mg / L and the second result, when it comes to the level of bicarbonate. Perhaps the manufacturer has any justification for such parameters, but I do them anyway not found. This is probably the only salt with the test, which is based on the results discourage him. High macronutrients suggest the use of tanks SPSowych, but poor performance, risk petrifaction (and thus the impact on the parameters) and numerous cross micronutrients put the usefulness of this salt into question. I sincerely hope that I went felerne packaging and in fact salt Reef Crystals falls much better Red Sea Coral Pro - salt of natural origin produced largely from the desalination of sea water. She received the best performance in our test. Company Red Sea has developed its own program running SPSowego aquarium called Reef Care Program.This explains the high content of certain macronutrients. You can see that the company RS has an idea for an aquarium, although success probably would require the application of the entire supplementation program, which for some is not cheap.Treating Salt RSCP in isolation from the salt Reef Care Program This state may become difficult to master for beginners. It is interesting that even in 2008 RSCP salt contained much lower levels of macronutrients (http://reefsaltanalysis.googlepages.com/AWT_Salt_Analysis_0208.pdf . Regarding trace elements, the RSCP has numerous exceeded eg. 290-ciokrotne exceeding Mn 2+ in compared to NSW. Despite the large capacity to absorb moisture, long lasting flowability. salt definitely designed for systems SPSowych. It would require rather use the entire program supplementation of Red Sea. Tropic Marine Pro Reef - German salt with high reputation and history dating back to the sixties of the last century. Salt TM, as well as AF maintains a macro similar to NSW, although you may notice a disparity between the Ca and KH. You can see a small deficiency of potassium and bromine. The manufacturer touts its salt, as a product of pharmaceutical purity, as shown in the table with microelements. A salt of good performance and clarity. Probably best to pass the test for resistance to petrified despite the most hygroscopic. Salt TM seems to be a good, universal for aquarists with different experience and requirements. Achieving pastel colors, however, will require a separate supplement. I must admit that the development of the article Fri. Test Salt was very difficult. The bigger congratulations to those who have gone through both parts of the text. Test salts differ in many respects, causing each of them will apply. However, remember that this is not the salt, and the aquarist is responsible for the final result, which is the result of patience and understanding your own tank.
  8. Hey Bcb. I looked up your tank and you have quite a bit of filtration going on there. You mentioned in another post that you have NEVER had to clean your glass. Sounds like a sterile tank. Softies like some nitrates and other impurities If it were my tank I would take the skimmer offline for now, drop the carbon pad and just use regular filter pads. You can keep using the chemi-pure and doing your water changes. I dont know what LED you're running but softies dont like being blasted with high light. I would make sure your not overdoing it. LEDs look a whole lot dimmer than you would think when they are actually throwing a high PAR. Might think about turning down your lights some, especially the whites if you can. Its fairly easy to tell what zoas/palys like as far as light level, too low and the will stretch up towards the light, too much and they will stay very flat looking. In my experience, less light is better with softies. Anyway...dirty up your tank. You really should have to clean your glass every few days. Get a good test kit like Salifert and check that your nitrates are just barley detectable and I bet you will see a change over time.
  9. Right...what Tam said. But in a year you should have some growth/spreading. Tell us your water parameters, type of lighting, livestock, etc. and maybe then you get some more ideas.
  10. The HD has some cool features that make it a nice light but I dont see the use of running any of the LEDs at 100%+. Who has a nano tank that uses anything approaching 100% intensity with any brand? Its a marketing thing IMO.
  11. Bayer. Everything else I have tried is hard on corals. With Bayer I have never noticed any negative response for even the most sensitive corals. Kills bugs dead. p.s. nice part...tank has been full for corals for months and months...so...dipping is over until next tank.
  12. Its a toss up. Some are nippers and some are not. I've had my tailspot for over a year in my sps tank and he is a model citizen.
  13. Fully automated 20g SPS tank is 1500 or more.
  14. Nice planning Nick. We should all be so organized. BUT....most wives upon visiting their husbands in the hospital will say "sorry honey that you needed to be in the hospital for 24 hours, so as a precaution I called the LFS store and had them dispose your tank".
  15. HOB. Might not be as techie but doesnt take up tank space. Put a couple of coats of black paint on the back and you wont notice it much. Easy on the wallet and works great. My 2 cents.